http://iptlodz.org/blog/wp-includes/escort-paris-grosse-poitrine.php XII, pages. ISBN DOI Add to Cart. Also Available As:. Miracle stories have always been a source of fascination, but in many respects they also cause considerable problems of interpretation. The essays of this volume examine the form of early Christian miracle stories, their ancient environment and their significance for the present. Hamann's tool for conceiving the interrelation of these dimensions of human life increasingly was the Principle of the Union of Opposites. He writes approvingly of this principle to his friends; particularly after his encounter with Kant's new epistemology, claiming to value it more than the principles of contradiction and of sufficient reason, and indeed more than the whole Kantian Critique ZH 5, ff; ZH 4, Contradictions and apparent oppositions fill our experience:.
Far from being a pre-condition for truth, the absence of contradiction is in Hamann's eyes a pre-condition for dogmatism. Knowledge must not proceed on the basis of unanimity and the absence of contradiction, but must proceed through the dialogue and relation of these different voices. Hamann does not think in terms of Hegel's later dialectical synthesis.
Body and mind, senses and reason, reason and passion are not truly opposed. These are contrasting elements of the same unified — unified but not homogenous — reality. Hamann tries to steer a course between Scylla and Charybdis: between the dogmatic, even tyrannical extermination of opposition and contradiction; and the elimination of contradiction through a false synthesis or fusion achieved by an apparent acceptance of antithetical realities.
The Principle of the Union of Opposites as a tactical tool, therefore, does not imply that Hamann sees the world in terms of divisions and dualism. It is his strategy for coping with the schematic antitheses abundant in Enlightenment philosophy. In a medieval morality or mystery play, the experience of being chaste or being lustful is transformed from a way of acting or feeling into a dramatic character who then speaks and acts as a personification of that quality.
So too in philosophy, Hamann suggests. The philosopher distinguishes differing aspects in the phenomenon under scrutiny and exaggerates their difference. Reason then becomes a thing to which we can ascribe properties. This shows perhaps a streak bordering on nominalism in Hamann. It is clear however that Hamann puts a high value on certain ways of being reasonable and of reasoning activity.
Hamann's treatment of reason instead is a deconstruction, both of the prosopopoeic use of the word and the Enlightenment valuation of it. There is no such thing as reason — there is only reasoning. Reasoning, as something we do, is as fallible as we are, and as such is subject to our position in history, or own personality, or the circumstances of the moment.
The majority of Hamann scholars today see his position in a more complex way.
Hamann opposed many of the popular convictions of his time. However, Hamann fought his contemporaries on many fronts; often with areas of considerable agreement with some of his opponents. One example would be the way that he deployed Hume as a weapon against Enlightenment rationalism, not least against Kant although Hamann was the one who introduced Kant to Hume's writings in the first place. Although Hamann, as a Christian, had profound disagreements with Hume's thought in its atheistic aspects, nevertheless he used Humean skepticism in his own deconstructive writings.
Hume's doubts about the reliability and self-sufficiency of reason were grist to Hamann's mill. In one sense, however, Hamann can certainly be seen as a critic—or metacritic—of the Enlightenment. Moreover, Kant heaps praise on their monarch, Frederick the Great, whom Hamann deemed immoral and despotic.
The irony of being instructed to think for oneself, and being told to have the courage to know, was not lost on Hamann.
In Hamann's view, the scholarly freedom to reflect, which Kant commends, is a luxury compared to the ethical imperative to question and debate in the professional and political sphere, which Kant restricts. The private use is the daily bread that we should give up for its sake.
The self-incurred immaturity is just such a sneer as he makes at the whole fair sex, and which my three daughters will not put up with. Language is one of Hamann's most abiding philosophical concerns.
From the beginning of his work, Hamann championed the priority which expression and communication, passion and symbol possess over abstraction, analysis and logic in matters of language. Neither logic nor even representation in Rorty's sense possesses the rights of the first-born. Representation is secondary and derivative rather than the whole function of language.
To think that language is essentially a passive system of signs for communicating thoughts is to deal a deathblow to true language. For all Hamann's emphasis in his earlier writings on passion and emotion, he does not equate language with emotional expression. This became clear in his engagement with the writing of his younger friend Herder on the origin of language.
Language has a mediating relationship between our reflection, one another, and our world; and as it is not simply the cries of emotion of an animal, so too it is not a smothering curtain between us and the rest of reality. Language also has a mediating role between God and us. Hamann's answer to a debate of his time, the origin of language — divine or human? Rewriting the story of the Garden of Eden, he describes this paradise as:. In his view, the central question of Kant's first Critique , the very possibility of a priori knowledge and of pure reason, depends on the nature of language.
In a passage full of subtle allusions to Kantian passages and terms, he writes:. It is for this reason however that language can constitute the cure for philosophy. This is the ground of the paralogisms and antinomies that Kant raises in his Critique. The relation of language to reason he certainly did not feel had solved, however, as he wrote to a friend:.
For Hamann, knowledge is inseparable from self-knowledge, and self-knowledge inseparable from knowledge of the other. Sometimes this exploration of self-knowledge through interpersonal intimacy takes a sexual form, as in the Sibyl's Essay on Marriage already discussed. All forms of knowledge, of learning and development even of the most natural functions, require the help of another. N III, ; N III, This is conceived not only in such immediately interpersonal ways, but also more widely in the context of the community.
Years before Kant's first Critique , Hamann attempts to relate the senses and the understanding and their roles in knowledge, using a characteristically concrete metaphor: the senses are like the stomach, the understanding like blood vessels. Schatzmann, Hendrickson Publishers Inc. Neue Wege der Forschung, hg. Selderhuis, Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt , Geburtstag, Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig , Die Logienquelle Q. Der Friede Gottes und der Friede der Welt.
Szell Hgg. Band l: Erfahrung und Deutung von Krieg und Frieden. Rudolf Bultmann, Neues Testament und christliche Existenz. Jesus als der Christus bei Paulus und Lukas. Brucker, Hg. Die Sammlung der Paulusbriefe im l. Jahrhundert, in: J. Rudolf Bultmann e il suo influsso sulla teologia e sulla chiesa, Rassegna di teologia 44, , Witnessing to unity. Ten years after the Meissen Declaration. Wunder und Wirklichkeit.
So should religion be. Jahrhundert, in: O. A central component of this religious attitude is a belief in the Absolute, and this belief is not justified even by James through reli- gious practice alone, but rather through religious experience, and at the centre of this religious experience is the experience of the Absolute. One must also remember that Hamann confessed that he could not conceive of a Creative Spirit without genitalia; indeed, he was quite happy to assert that the genitals are the unique bond between creature and Creator. Neutestamentlich, in: Oda Wischmeyer Hg.
Literatur zu den Synoptischen Evangelien I. Glauben und Handeln. Breytenbach und J. Wer ist Jesus Christus? Literatur zu den Synoptischen Evangelien II. Die Logienquelle Q, ThR 69 Das Markusevangelium, ThR 69 Literatur zu den Synoptischen Evangelien IV. Das Lukasevangelium, ThR 70 Literatur zu den Synoptischen Evangelien V. Tuckett eds. Eigentum und Reich Gottes.
Die Rezeption des Paulus im 2. Jahrhundert, in: O. Wischmeyer Hg. Lk 2, Mell Hgg. Zum Jesusbild der Evangelien, in: F. Schweitzer Hg. Kongressband des XII. Jede r. Gemeinde und Individuum im 1. Korintherbrief, in: K. Zager Hgg. Horst Balz zum Geburtstag, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart , Paulus und Elia. Engagierte exegetische Studien zum biblischen Reden Gottes. Theologie der Krippe.
Die Zukunft Gottes und die Gegenwart des Menschen. Beobachtungen zur Eschatologie des Paulus, in: Ulrich H. Paulus und die Jesustradition, in: R. Tromp eds. Hans Conzelmann in: C. Hoppe Hg. Theologie — Seelsorge — Medizin. Kirchenkreis Tecklenburg. Theologische Vortragsreihe , Lengerich , Studia Theologica Debrencinensis, Sonderheft , Vom Brief nach Thessaloniki zum Neuen Testament.
Die Evangelien und die Apostelgeschichte. Jesus und das epilepsiekranke Kind. Zum Jesusbild der neutestamentlichen Evangelien, aaO. Neutestamentlich, in: Oda Wischmeyer Hg. Calvin als Schriftausleger, in: Christian Ammer Hg. II, Band 3. Oxford Conference, April Essays in Honour of Christopher M. Tuckett, ed. Verheyden, Peeters, Leuven , Pratscher ed. Waschungen, Initiation und Taufe.