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By Peter Veth. The results highlight that peak correlations between S. This difference is most likely linked to contrasting length of the growing season at two study sites Fig. As expected, air temperature is an important environmental parameter explaining radial growth at both sites, but relatively low correlation coefficients suggest that other factors, besides air temperature, may also be important for the growth of willow dwarf shrubs in the High Arctic.
As indicated in previous studies conducted on shrubs in the Low Arctic, snow cover Hallinger et al. However, verification of such relationships is hampered by lack of other-than-temperature climate data in situ from High Arctic locations, where wind-drifted snow cover is challenging to measure cf. Haas et al. In contrast, Schmidt et al. This further indicates that other potentially more local and micro-site conditions such as topography cf. Ropars et al. Hence, the incoherence in various shrubs species growth responses to summer temperature requires further investigations, most likely at the regional level, to assess both species-specific and site-specific growth relations to various climatic regimes in the Arctic.
Specific relationships revealed between seasonal and monthly atmospheric oscillation indices and shrub annual growth, especially for S. This relationship can be explained by the link between negative NAO index and warm weather associated with a high pressure system, which peaks in June in this section of the Arctic Overland et al. S3 the significant seasonal relationship revealed between both shrub species and regional climate reflected in both indices remains somehow puzzling.
Specifically, the latter study conducted in Northern Greenland Johannes V.
This is in line with the correlations obtained for S. Whereas in Svalbard, a negative correlation with summer AO June—September index was revealed for Cassiope tetragona growth from Spitsbergen Aanes et al. In contrast, our study on S. The correlation found between a negative AO index during the dormant period previous September - previous November, son and S. This might indicate that growth of S.
Positive relationship between enhanced snow cover and S. We conclude that further exploration is required to gain understanding of these arctic teleconnections, i. The results from two sites in this study are important as these sites represent contrasting environmental conditions across the High Arctic, but current exploration is hampered by a lack of high resolution in situ data including dormant period such as precipitation or snow depths at multiple sites across the High Arctic.
Although we analyzed plants, which were sampled across different habitat types, we obtained relatively high, for dwarf shrub series, inter-series correlation coefficients r and a consistent summer temperature signal for both species. Yet, the S. Inter-series correlation between individual S. Missing rings are a common phenomenon in arctic shrubs and might prevent successful cross-dating of shrubs growing under harsh conditions Woodcock and Bradley ; Zalatan and Gajewski The relative low number of shrubs studied from both sites in our study might potentially increase the risk of not detecting missing rings.
However, we believe that missing rings were successfully detected through the application of serial sectioning. The inclusion of shrubs in our study from different micro-sites, both in terms of geographical location and environmental settings, most likely increased the chance of missing rings detection, which occurrence might be highly site-specific. In addition, the significant relations with summer temperatures obtained in our study strengthens the notion that the elimination of missing rings for our study period has been fulfilled.
Our study thus reaffirms that i only a careful study of annual growth rings performed on dyed and complete thin-sections, followed by ii thorough cross-dating within and between the shrubs, enables reliable, i. This study presents the first comparison of willow dwarf shrubs radial growth chronologies from two remote High Arctic sites.
Despite the differences in local climates, both studied species, i. Through the application of shrub sampling across a relatively large area, supplemented by serial sectioning and careful detection of locally and completely missing rings, we were able to successfully cross-date relatively old shrubs from different micro-sites in two contrasting sites in the High Arctic. We suggest that extension of the chronology lengths and associated climatic signals is possible through a more extensive sampling campaign in the northernmost polar deserts, which are lacking high resolution in situ climate data.
This is especially true for S.
We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. BE conceived the study and collected the Salix arctica samples, AB collected Salix polaris samples, constructed growth rings chronologies for both Salix species, and analyzed the data, AB and BE wrote the manuscript with input from all co-authors. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Temperature sensitivity of willow dwarf shrub growth from two distinct High Arctic sites. Open Access. First Online: 03 December Keywords Salix arctica Pall. Salix polaris Wahlenb.
Introduction In recent decades, tundra vegetation greenness has increased at many Arctic sites, which has been documented by remotely-sensed proxies, as the normalized difference vegetation index NDVI Myneni et al. Here 11 intact S. Sampling locations consisted of relatively moist plots, i. Only mature and apparently healthy individuals were sampled. Open image in new window. Cross-dating of raw ring width measurements of the two willow shrub species was performed separately for each species in four independent steps: Firstly, radial measurement series were cross-dated within cross-sections.
This was supplemented by careful visual inspection of irregular and partially missing rings within complete cross-section. Secondly, the cross-dated radial growth curves were averaged for each cross-section and then cross-dated and averaged per shrub individual. In a third step, the resulting mean shrub series were cross-dated and averaged per sample location. In the final step, the resulting mean growth series were cross-dated at site level, which resulted in a final willow shrub chronology for each High Arctic site.
Additionally, both locally missing rings i. Table 1 Characteristics and descriptive statistics of the High Arctic willow shrub chronologies. Study species Sampling location Geographic coordinates Salix arctica Pall. The juvenile phase growth trend, i. To evaluate climate-growth responses of shrubs from two distant High Arctic sites in a comprehensive way both chronologies were standardized. Air temperature characteristics and trends Table 2 and Fig. Linear regression analyses over — revealed that two strongest positive trends in mean monthly temperature were recorded in Peary Land for April 0.
The trend in mean annual temperature, although not statistically different, was higher for central Spitsbergen 0. Also, for central Spitsbergen considerable increase of a positive trend in August temperature was observed in the recent period, i. Trends estimated for summer months temperature were not significant for Peary Land over that period i. Both willow species from the two High Arctic sites revealed a significant summer temperature signal over the year study period — Fig. Table 7. Standardized S. Additionally, the raw S.
Summer temperature signal was additionally observed in both species with bootstrapped confidence intervals computed for correlation coefficients Suppl. S11 — S Growth increase for S. In addition, linear regression analyses revealed a positive linear trend in annual growth of the two willow shrub species in relation to summer temperature at both High Arctic locations. Stronger positive relationships between Salix growth and summer temperature were found in the recent period, i. S2 and S5.
Linear mixed effect LME modeling Suppl.
Gbahn and Archipelago – a seafaring world locked in conflicts between magic and war, faith and power, tradition and change, sea and desert. The people of. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Michelle M. Welch wrote her first book at the age of 9 - a handwritten stack of paper bound with string and shelved in her.
Table 2 — 3. The correlation analysis with moving day-windows of mean air temperatures and standardized Salix ring-width growth revealed that among temperature variables S. The highest correlations with day mean air temperature for S. Temperature sensitivity of two willow shrub species from two distinct High Arctic sites Despite differences in site-specific conditions and regional climate, the two willow shrub species studied, each from another remote High Arctic location, were characterized by summer temperature sensitivity recorded in their ring-width chronologies spanning a half-century — Chronology quality Although we analyzed plants, which were sampled across different habitat types, we obtained relatively high, for dwarf shrub series, inter-series correlation coefficients r and a consistent summer temperature signal for both species.
Acknowledgements We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. Author contributions BE conceived the study and collected the Salix arctica samples, AB collected Salix polaris samples, constructed growth rings chronologies for both Salix species, and analyzed the data, AB and BE wrote the manuscript with input from all co-authors. Bamzai AS Relationship between snow cover variability and Arctic Oscillation index on a hierarchy of time scales. I don't always want a neat and tidy ending.
I like being able to create a further story in my own way. It is also my understanding, that there is a third book that does continue the story. Luckily, I think this can be read without reading the other books. I gave this 3 stars despite the above issues because the world Welch builds is interesting and some of the issues that arose for the characters felt real. Apr 09, Mj rated it liked it. It was good.
I had a little trouble getting into it. Some confusion with following multiple story lines. It might've helped if I could've read more of the story at a time. It might also have helped to read the first in the series before this book. Jul 18, Donald rated it it was ok Shelves: guilty-pleasures , read-ins , sci-fi-fantasy , read-in Re-read this in May.
The story really didn't grab me the second time around and the characters are not as interesting as the one's Welch introduces in Confidence Game. Apr 17, Ruhegeist rated it did not like it Shelves: fantasy. P rated it liked it Nov 28, Mouran Boutros rated it liked it Apr 25, Alicia rated it liked it Sep 25, Susan Dickson rated it it was ok Aug 22, Sara rated it liked it Jun 14, Courtney rated it really liked it Mar 15, Ali rated it it was ok May 12, Kappie rated it it was ok Jun 07, Peter rated it liked it Feb 06, Stephanie rated it really liked it Jul 26, Salimbol rated it really liked it Sep 26, Stephanie rated it liked it Jun 01, Jeremy Gup rated it liked it Nov 09, Lane rated it really liked it Jan 10, Nicki Reddy rated it it was amazing Sep 30, Becky rated it really liked it Jul 09, Liesa rated it did not like it Jun 06, Silver rated it really liked it Dec 30, Lejon Johnson rated it liked it Oct 06, C rated it it was ok Apr 11, Sam rated it liked it Sep 21, David rated it really liked it May 11, Evan rated it liked it Aug 14, Shira added it Apr 23, Amberkatze Book added it Jun 14, Moonshower marked it as to-read Jun 15, Amanda Hurdelbrink marked it as to-read Jul 18,