Take scuba diving: I recently got open water certified in Gili Trawangan, Bali, and in addition to falling in love with the underwater world, I picked up some habits that are quite practical in helping me improve the focus, efficiency, and productivity of my brand identity coaching business.
One of the first and most important rules of diving is to constantly breathe in and out, consistently and without exception. Similar to meditation, diving is very much about staying present in the moment, breathing regularly, and observing the environment unfolding around you. The act of breathing steadily is not only necessary to enjoy the sport, but also to ensure safety. Diving creates a contained environment in which I am pushed to pay attention and stay focused on the task at hand.
I carry this with me in my working style and my commitment to excel in my projects. I break the projects down into a series of tasks, I prioritize them, and then I focus on one task at a time. I stay completely present — often working in minute, hyper-focused increments similar to the Pomodoro technique — and do not allow myself to be distracted by my phone or other technologies.
Part of succeeding in both work and life is cultivating the ability to remain cool, composed, and concentrated when presented with challenges. While diving is an extreme sport, following protocol and staying calm and collected can prevent the majority of complications.
What is a three-act structure, and how best do you write it? We dive into act one, two, and three providing writers with a free custom checklist for each. I'm generally good at coming up with a concept for a screenplay, and. Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, usually while . Most diving competitions consist of three disciplines: 1 m and 3 m springboards, and the platform. . Coaches also play a role in this aspect of the sport. Under FINA law, no dive may be changed after the deadline for the.
Minor issues will pop up all the time: for example, there may be discomfort with your equipment such as a leaky mask , someone could accidentally bump into you and knock out your regulator, or the currents may be strong… the list goes on. Physical activity is obviously one of the key causes of CV stress in divers. However environmental conditions such as hyperoxia, increase in the ambient pressure, cold exposure, effect of immersion, formation of intravascular bubbles and psychological stress present in scuba diving can also contribute to CV stress. An acute exposure to above mentioned conditions can result in cardiovascular disorder and could be fatal.
On the other hand, gradual exposure and consequential CV stress can result in improved resistance not only of CV function but also of the whole organism. SIRTs certainly have a major role in the adaptation mechanisms. Still there are no proven strategies to reduce exercise related cardiac events and consequently no proven strategies that could be confidently applied to diving. Thus, at the end the question remains: whether and if yes, under which circumstances, scuba diving improves or deteriorates CV function, and which mechanisms are involved in this story?
We hope that future research will be able to offer the answers. Scuba diving-induced oxidative stress is an interesting and still largely unexplored area. Although numerous studies have given a great contribution to the role and the significance of SIRTs in exercise-induced oxidative stress, still, there is no a single study on SIRTs in scuba diving. Scuba diving represents one of the possible models which include mechanisms that can increase the expression and activation of SIRTs.
However, it remains unclear how environmental conditions under water may contribute to the increased expression or activation of SIRTs. Similarly, little is known on how production of free radicals depends on the diving depth and the duration of exposure to high pressure environment, cold as well as the type of breathing gas air, nitrox, trimix etc. It should be mentioned that diving with the nitrox due to lower ratio of nitrogen, compared with the air, reduces the possibility of gas bubble formation as well as the risk of diving DCS. This effect accelerates decompression and extends the diving time, which results in growing popularity of recreational scuba diving with nitrox as opposed to scuba diving using air.
However, nitrox diving has a potential, but not sufficiently explored negative side which is associated to the exposure to higher oxygen pressure in contrast to air diving Therefore, the unexplored questions are: a what happens to the formation of free radicals, antioxidant defence enzymes, CV biomarkers and SIRTs after the intense physical activity under water; b what happens in the same conditions but without the increased physical activity and c what happens in the same conditions but with using different breathing gases.
Regular exercise leads to the upregulation of the antioxidant defence, which helps to reduce oxidative stress that can occur after acute exercise 2. So, one of the important aspects of scuba diving, as well as of other forms of exercise, is its frequency. Measurements of oxidative damage markers and other parameters linked to the oxidative and CV stress following the repeated dives, may offer valuable information on how often scuba diving should or should not be practiced. Additionally, due to the increasing popularity of scuba diving and the growing prevalence of CV diseases in the world, the impact of diving on CV function is very important 77 , Research in this direction could provide a powerful tool for medical evaluation of potential divers.
Differences in the design of research studies on exercise-induced oxidative stress represent a huge problem in the evaluation of their results. Furthermore, measurement of different markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant defence enzymes and CV biomarkers, as well as the differences in the used tests and the sampling time after the exercise, all pose another difficulty in making reliable inferences in the research of exercise-induced oxidative stress.
In future, defining standardized guidelines and recommendations for the studies dealing with exercise-induced stress, will be needed. Scuba diving represents a special form of exercise-induced oxidative stress, in which increased production of free radicals occurs not only due to increased physical activity, but also due to the changes in the environmental conditions under the water. Precisely, these additional environmental aspects represent diving as an interesting and unexplored field of exercise-induced oxidative stress.
The discovery of new signalling pathways and molecules such as SIRTs opens up new areas of redox biology that show negative but also positive effects of oxidative stress, as well as the connection of oxidative stress with aging and age-related diseases. Although intensive studies in the recent years have provided many answers about exercise-induced oxidative and CV stress, there are still a lot of questions and contradictions, especially related to various forms of recreational or professional sports, including scuba diving.
Potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Biochem Med Zagreb v. Biochem Med Zagreb.
Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 9; Accepted Feb This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Environmental conditions and increased physical activity during scuba diving are followed by increased production of free radicals and disturbed redox balance. Keywords: diving, oxidative stress, sirtuins, cardiovascular system. Introduction In the last few decades, diving with the self contained underwater breathing apparatus scuba has become a popular recreational sport activity all around the world.
Effects of scuba diving on the oxidative status An imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defence in human body leads to an oxidative stress state. Shah et al. Luo et al. Webster et al. Ng et al. Nemeto et al. Kauppinen et al. Baur 27 ; Tang 28 ; Jeong et al. Rai et al. Mattagajasingh et al. Li et al. Wang et al. Chung et al. Yuan et al. Haigis et al. Duan 38 ; Pediconi et al. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Cardiovascular response to scuba diving During the scuba dive, divers are exposed to numerous factors which may affect haemodynamics and CV function.
Future directions and perspectives Scuba diving-induced oxidative stress is an interesting and still largely unexplored area. Conclusion Scuba diving represents a special form of exercise-induced oxidative stress, in which increased production of free radicals occurs not only due to increased physical activity, but also due to the changes in the environmental conditions under the water.
Footnotes Potential conflict of interest None declared. References 1. CMAS, Universal standards and procedures. Accessed December 23th, Oxidants, antioxidants, and the beneficial roles of exercise-induced production of reactive species.
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