Many of these species including spiny dogfish, American shad, hakes and mackerel enter the Gulf of Maine and Massachusetts Bay and remain there throughout the summer. In winter, they migrate either south or to the warmer continental slope waters in the Gulf of Maine. During winter, many summer migratory species move to the warm slope water off southern New England.
These species include red hake, silver hake, scup, butterfish, summer flounder and goosefish, as well as some less common species Table 1 L2. The winter component of fishes migrating from the north and east consist of Atlantic cod, yellowtail flounder, and longhorn sculpin, TRIGOM, Generally, the fishes of the summer component are most abundant on inshore grounds, when the water temperature is the same as that in which they were most abundant offshore.
Generally, almost all non-migratory species exhibit some seasonal movement. Only sea raven, or longhorn sculpin occur in shallow waters in winter. In March, winter flounder, ocean pout, sculpin and little skate appear nearshore. Later in the summer, cunners, alewife and luxnpfish occur. Appendix C presents information on the life histories of several species occurring in Massachusetts Bay.
MDMF surveys of May and September bottom trawls from to show that winter flounder is the most abundant species in all depth intervals sampled in May and remains the most abundant species in September although actual abundance decreased at all depths from May to September.
Winter flounder in Massachusetts Bay are known to disperse to deeper water throughout the summer after spawning in Boston Harbor in spring; however, they generally do not migrate a great distance Howe and Coates, Atlantic cod and ocean pout are also abundant in May but declined These two species are relatively less abundant in the shallower waters in both May and September. Cod are known to migrate south to spawn in warmer waters during fall and winter.
Ocean pout spawn in southern New England waters including the present study area in fall Grosslein and Azarovitz, , A total of species have been collected in these DMF surveys over the sampling period. Total abundance of all species combined tends to decrease from May to September at all depths. The data on the abundance of shellfish collected in the same DMF trawls from through indicate that American lobster Hornarus americanus is the most abundant epifaunal shellfish species in May for all depths.
Its numbers tend to increase in deeper offshore water in September as does the rock: crab Cancer irroratus. Winter flounder are abundant throughout Boston Harbor. This species appears to dominate in the northern part of the Harbor west of Deer Island. Demersal fish density is high in the northern part of Boston Harbor but species diversity is low MDC, In the southern part of Boston Harbor in the vicinity of Nut Island , density of fish is lower than the northern harbor but diversity is higher.
Haedrich and Haedrich found winter flounder dominating the fish population within the upper reaches of the inner harbor at the mouth of the Mystic River. In spring and early summer smelt and alewife were also abundant in this area. Several studies have been conducted documenting detnersal fish and epibenthic shellfish tissue contamination in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay Boehm et al.
Boehm et al. The ratios range from zero no sewage to approximately Boehin et al. MWRA is conducting bloaccuinulation studies in support of the Secondary Treatment Facilities Plan; however, this data is not yet available. Finwhales, humpback whales, minke whales, right whales and sei whales have been known to occur in Massachusetts Bay. All of these species with the exception of the sei whale are listed on the federally endangered species list. Table C. The highest use areas by whales in the vicinity of the study area is Steliwagen Bank and basin Kenney and Winn, Two species of pinipeds, harbor seals Phoca vitulina and the gray seal Halichoerus grypus are known to occur in Massachusetts Bay and the Gulf of Maine.
The harbor seal is found year-round in inshore waters basking on nearshore half-tide ledges and islands. The gray seal is found among the harbor seals only during the warmer summer months. Gray seals are capable of long periods of pelagic existence. Loggerheads are listed as threatened. Leatherbacks and loggerheads are listed as endangered and threatened respectively by NMFS. Leatherback turtles are highly pelagic. Loggerhead turtles are rare north of Cape Cod.
Generally, Massachusetts is the northern range limit for loggerheads, therefore these waters are marginal habitat Payne and Ross, The species observed in these surveys are typical of the Gulf of Maine and are generally the same species that would occur in the present study area. Dominant taxa include alcids, gulls and shearwaters. Some coastal species including seaducks, grebes, loons, petrals and terns may also occur in the study area.
Harbor resources and impacts are described in detail in Appendix D, with emphasis on the marine transportation aspects of this and related projects which could impact existing harbor resources. The affected harbor! Potentially affected harbor resources are navigation, commercial shipping, commercial fishing, recreation, and marine archaeology. These channels and anchorages support shipping, commercial and recreational fishing, and pleasure boating and will be used by project-related marine traffic. A single designated anchorage area for large vessels, located west of Deer Island, is used by 95 percent of commercial shipping traffic which needs to anchor due to delays in loading or unloading USACE, 1 9 8Z.
Channels and anchorages are periodically maintained by the U. Navigation resources are shown in Fig. The inner Boston Harbor waterfront supports roughly two dozen public and private port facilities. Nearly 7, commercial vessel round trips occur yearly. Most of the commercial vessel traffic enters and leaves the harbor via the President Roads channel traveling to and from port facilities on the Boston, Chelsea River, and Mystic River waterfronts with the remaining traffic traveling through Nantasicet Roads to the Quincy waterfront on the Weymouth Fore River.
Commercial shipping traffic is expected to remain stable or increase slightly during the next decade Habel, In addition to commercial shipping activity, sightseeing and whale watching cruises and passenger ferry services operate from piers at Logan Airport, Hull, Hinghain, the Boston Harbor Islands State Parks seasonal , and downtown Boston wharves Fig.
Most ferry vessels operating in Boston Harbor have the capacity for approximately passengers. Potential Diffuser Sites I I t 4.
SITE 2. Boston commercial fishing landings for , which include fish harvested outside the study area, included 14 million pounds of lobster and More than 5, acres of shellfish beds exist in Boston Harbor, but at present, unacceptable levels of coliform bacteria have caused more than half of the existing shellfish bed acreage to be closed. Lobster fishing is generally concentrated inside the harbor in summer and outside the harbor in fall and winter MDC, LIa.
Herring Clupea herangus herangus winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus , yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea and cod Gadhus morhua are major finfish commercially harvested in the project area. Site 2 is in a restricted area inshore of the spawning closure and the trawl closure line Fig. Sites LI and 5 are fished less intensively than Site 2, but are open to fishing more of the year.
Recreational resources include parks, beaches Fig. Boston Harbor Islands State Park encompasses 9 major islands, each with various recreational facilities available and serviced by seasonal passenger ferries Appendix D. Recreational fishing takes place in the harbor and throughout the Massachusetts Bay area. Most anglers utilize their own boats, lease boats, or use the available party boats and charters based in the area. The recreational fishing industry in the Boston area once thrived but has been depressed in recent years because of the negative publicity on harbor pollution and contaminated or cancerous fish.
Recreational fishing activity generally occurs from spring through fall with peaks during the summer vacation months. The most popular target species include winter flounder, cod, mackerel, and bluefish. V App. SITE 4. Bathing Beaches are deemed sensitive because contamination from effluent or spills from vessels could have immediate adverse effects on public health and recreation.
Shellfish Beds , like bathing beaches, are deemed sensitive because contamination could adversely affect public health if contaminated shellfish are harvested and consumed. Contamination could also cause economic and environmental impacts if the vigor and reproductive capabilities of shellfish populations were affected or if additional shellfish beds had to be closed. Marine Research Facilities are considered sensitive resources because ongoing research could be adversely affected if in-site experimental areas or seawater supply to laboratories or aquaria became contaminated.
Estuarine Wetlands and Areas of Signficant and Submerged Vegetation are included as sensitive resources because contamination or physical disruption could cause long term adverse impacts on the Boston Harbor ecosystem by diminishing areas of primary productivity and reproductive or breeding habitat. Wetland and submerged vegetation areas have already been greatly reduced by development along the shore of Boston Harbor, increasing the relative importance of remaining areas.
Sanctuaries and Areas of Critical Environmental Concern are areas which have been protected by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts because of their unique ecological values. The areas within the study area are protected because of their ecological and aesthetic value as saltmarsh and shoreline environments. Only those resources potentially affected by the outfall and inter-island conduit construction and operation are described.
Cultural and archaeological resources potentially impacted by outfall and diffuser construction consist of shipwrecks in the vicinity of the diffuser sites. Neither the outfall tunnel nor the inter-island conduit would impact any cultural or archaeological resources because they will pass through rock below the ocean floor, but drilling or trenching for the diffuser could cause obvious disruption of wrecksites.
Shipwreck locations were developed from historic records and have not been field verified. The recorded locations of shipwrecks indicate a greater occurrence of wrecks closer to shore. Diffuser Sites 4. Potential Diffuser Sites Ds Island car. Wrecks predating World War I are possible but are not recorded. The general locations of recorded wrecks are shown by Fig. No potential marine archaeological impacts will occur from construction of the inter -island conduit or the effluent outfall tunnel because both will be deep rock tunnels originating onshore.
V APP. The deep rock tunnel alternative was selected for detailed evaluation since it would incur fewer impacts on the environment and harbor resources and be less costly than the other potential alternatives Chapter 3. This inter-island conduit system involves the construction of access shafts on Nut and Deer Islands connected by a 25, foot long, 11 foot diameter deep rock tunnel between Nut Island and Deer Island. The dominant bedrock in Boston Harbor is the Cambridge Formation. This rock is somewhat metamorphosed, and extremely folded and faulted.
The Cambridge Formation is generally thinly bedded, laminated to occasionally nonbedded, fine grained, well indurated and moderately hard to hard. Some areas of bedrock are exposed as harbor islands while other areas occur to feet below mean sea level. The presence of igneous bedrock along the inter-island conduit route increases the likelihood that tillite or conglomerate would also be encountered. In the vicinity of the conduit route, argillite bedding occurs at angles varying from degrees to vertical.
These formations show evidence of complex folding and shearing. Several major irregularities are anticipated along the conduit route. Bedrock formations in the vicinities of the access shafts on Nut and Deer Islands are similar. The argillite bedrock generally dips at an angle of to 50 degrees from horizontal and has closely spaced parallel-to-subparallel jointing.
Fractures in the bedding have often been healed by calcite. Exposed joint surfaces show little indication of weathering. At Nut Island, the top of the bedrock is at elevation feet while at Deer Island, the bedrock is located at elevation 33 feet. Upland disposal should not be constrained, and disposal should not affect selection of conduit or outfall alternatives. No specific upland disposal sites have been identified or evaluated for these materials. However, disposal operations will follow all state requirements for disposal on upland areas. Disposal is administered by the U. The site has historically been used for the disposal of dredged materials and industrial wastes and has received approximately 3 million cubic yards of dredged material per decade USACOE, Sediments at the site are largely sandy silts, reflecting the nature of past deposition.
Mean bottom currents at the site are generally less than 5 centimeters per second with a maximum bottom current of about 35 centimeters per second SAIC, Recent sampling for USACOE indicates that the western portion of the site where disposal occurs is dominated by spionid, cirratulid, and capitellid polychaete and oligochaete worms which typically inhabit clayey silts SAIC, k.
Continued disturbance due to disposal activities keeps the conununity in a pioneering state. Less dominant species include red hake Urophycis chuss , white hake Urophycis tenuis and deepwater redfish Sebastes mentella SAIC Most fisherman avoid the Foul Area because of the debris from previous disposal operations. Humpback, finback and right whales and leatherback and loggerhead turtles, currently on the endangered species list, use the nearby Steliwagen Bank area NMFS, These water quality parameters are measured in terms of water column concentrations.
Sediment deposition rates, in turn, are directly dependent on suspended solids concentrations. These concentrations are the result of a balance between loadings and removal or fate processes. The loadings of interest are from the proposed MWRA discharge; loadings from other sources, however, are also considered to evaluate cumulative impacts.
The fate processes include transport processes, which are the same for all the constituents, and physico-bio-chemical processes which are constituent specific. These elements are briefly described below and are covered in further detail in Appendix A. DDT 0. The nitrogenous BOD loadings were calculated based on the nitrogen loadings, which are practically the same for primary and secondary effluent.
The NBOD loading was calculated as the nitrogen loading multiplied by The dissolved oxygen deficit DOD is the amount by which dissolved oxygen DO is reduced due to the discharge. The DO in the effluent was assumed to be zero, leading to a DOD loading equal to the ambient DO concentration multiplied by the discharge flow rate. Average day flows were used, since the development of DO deficits occurs on a time scale of one to two weeks and short duration events would not significantly affect DO levels.
The toxics loadings are highly variable and the corresponding water quality criteria are based on exceedance frequencies Section 4. To allow determination of these frequencies, both the mean and standard deviation of the toxics loadings are provided based on measured influent concentrations and estimated removal efficiencies. Lower removal efficiencies were, however, assumed to prevail during periods of very high flows. The detection limit for Aroclor 12 42 was 0. This reduced PCB level is consistent with observed trends towards decreasing PCB levels in wastewaters and in the environment.
Transport Processes. These processes are advection the transport of dissolved or suspended matter due to the movement of the carrier fluid , and diffusion the transport from high to lOW concentration areas due to turbulence. These processes assume very different characters in the immediate vicinity of the outfall structure discharge nearfield and farther away from it farfield and different models are used to analyze these two regions.
This dilution is enhanced by discharge through the multiport diffuser, which distributes the effluent over a number of individual jets eventually merging into a single line plume. In the nearfield, the main driving forces are buoyancy and, to a lesser degree, the discharge momentum of the effluent. When the water column is stratified, the density of the plume may reach that of the ambient because of previous entrainment of deep, dense ambient waters. In this case, the plume reaches a maximum height of rise.
For unstratified conditions, the plume rises all the way to the water surface and typically achieves greater dilution. The dynamics of the nearfield plume are controlled by the diffuser characteristics primarily its length , the ambient current speed and direction relative to the diffuser axis, and the ambient density stratification profile. The time that the effluent spends in the nearfield is relatively short on the order of a few minutes and, therefore, the effects of the constituent-specific physical, chemical or biochemical reactions is negligible.
The multiport diffuser is made up of a line of individual or multiport risers Chapter 3. In order to achieve maximum dilution for a given diffuser length, the port spacing must be sufficiently small to insure that all the ambient crossflow is intercepted and optimum dilution of the effluent is achieved by orienting the diffuser perpendicularly to the ambient current direction.
Hydraulically, the diffuser must be designed to insure seawater purging, uniform flow distribution among ports and sufficient velocities in the conduit to avoid settling Fischer et al. In the farfield, the diluted effluent is carried by ambient currents, undergoing additional mixing by large scale turbulent diffusion.
This mixing is largely controlled by the large scale circulation patterns in Massachusetts Bay. The effluent becomes mixed vertically over the water depth. During stratified conditions, the effluent may remain trapped under the pycnocline and, in these critical conditions, become mixed in the lower layer only. This represents the most critical condition in terms of constituent concentrations and settling, since the water depth is effectively reduced.
On the other hand, the surface waters remain relatively unaffected, with associated benefits such as reduced shoreline impacts.
These processes are reviewed below. Dissolved Oxygen Exertion. The latter occurs during storms or other resuspension events, when organic sediments are put back in suspension and exert additional DO demand. DO is replenished by surface reaeration or diffusion through the interface for effluent trapped in the lower layer , and photosynthetic activity. These processes and their kinetics are further described in Appendix A.
Photosynthesis is only active during the day and, for conservativeness, its effect were not taken into account in this analysis. Suspended solids SS remain in suspension because of turbulence and their deposition is controlled by their fall velocity. The fall velocity is a function of the particle sizes, ambient turbulence and suspended solids concentration, which controls flocculation Farley, For a given range of suspended solids concentrations and ambient turbulence levels, experiments have been conducted to determine the distribution of particles fall velocities Cardoni et al.
For this SEIS, three fall velocities were used: 0. Solids with a fall velocity lower than 0. The fraction of solids in each fall velocity range is given in Table 5. TABLE 5. The most important nutrient is nitrogen, since it tends to be the limiting growth factor in estuarine and coastal areas Appendix C. Nitrogen is supplied by the effluent primarily in the form of ammonia and, following discharge, undergoes a number of bio-chemical reactions and transformations within the nitrogen cycle.
During the summer, nitrogen is recycled very rapidly and it can be assumed that nitrogen is a conservative substance. Organic chemicals discharged in the effluent will be subject to the following removal processes in the water column: vaporization, hydrolysis, photolysis, biodegradation and adsorption onto suspended solids followed by settling. Each of these processes approximately follows a first order decay decay rate proportional to the constituent concentration , with a rate constant dependent on the chemical and other ambient.
For each organic chemical and each process, MWRA estimated a rate constant, from which combined rate constants were calculated. Based on these, three classes were identified, characterized by half lives time required for one half of the concentration to decay of 20 days, 60 days and no decay, in to which the organic chemicals were placed MWRA, STFP V,A, These estimates of half lives were reviewed and found to provide an adequate characterization of the decay processes. Inorganic chemicals, primarily metals, can exist many different forms, depending on ambient factors such as pH and ligand concentrations, with different bioavailability and toxicity.
The primary physico-chemical fate process undergone by these chemicals is adsorption to suspended solids followed by settling. This is a conservative approach because a significant portion of the metals were also assumed to be deposited in the sediments Appendix B and Section 5. Based on diffuser characteristics, effluent flowrate and density, ambient current, and stratification, this model calculates the nearfield dilution and maximum height of rise of the effluent plume.
Recent studies have shown that this model consistently underpredicts nearfield dilution Appendix A Section A. For each alternate diffuser site, a range of effluent flow, ambient current and stratification conditions were considered. A probability of occurrence was attributed to each of these parameters, to allow subsequent evaluation of compliance with toxicity criteria, which involve a frequency of exceedance limit. For each site, the current speeds used in the simulations were the 10, 50 and 90 percentile speeds Table 1 L2.
The discharge depth used at each site was the depth below mean low water minus 1. The current scatter plots at the proposed diffuser sites, however, exhibit a strong biomodality approximately east-west , suggesting that the diffusers could be oriented perpendicular to the ambient current for a preponderence of the time.
Another consideration in the selection of a diffuser orientation is to have the ports at the same elevation, to insure a uniform flow distribution among all the ports. An average orientation close to 90 degrees therefore appears desirable and achievable. This orientation was therefore also considered in the analyses. A critical design parameter for the diffuser is its length and sensitivity to this parameter was investigated by also running the analyses for a m long diffuser. For each diffuser site and design, between and sets of ambient conditions were considered, as described above.
The results are summarized in terms of 10, 50 and 90 percentile nearfield dilutions Table 5. The increase of 50 percentile median dilution is 31 percent from Site 2 to 14 and 17 percent from Site 14 to 5. The 10 percentile dilutions increase slightly more. Orienting the diffuser at 90 degrees to the currents increases dilutions by an average of about 23 percent, with larger increases for the larger dilutions 90 percentile. This increase can be put in perspective by noting that the Site 14 diffuser at 90 degrees to the current provides essentially the same dilutions as the Site 5 diffuser at degrees.
The magnitude of the background build-up is determined by a balance of the input from the effluent discharge and removal rates of individual constituents. The removal mechanisms are: i transport by net drift Section Perfectly symmetrical tidal currents do not provide any net transport removal since their average velocity net drift is zero. The net drift is the result of tidal asymmetries, winds, fresh water discharges and large scale weather patterns and, as such, is variable in space and time Section Periods of low net drifts result in temporarily higher background build-ups and the duration of low net drift periods is therefore an important factor.
Models and Methodologies. The hydrodynamic model TEA and companion water quality transport model ELA were selected for the farfield modeling of this study. These two-dimensional vertically-averaged finite element models account for the location, magnitude and configuration of alternative effluent discharges, as well as the effects of spacial and temporal variations in tidal and residual circulation, turbulent diffusion and effluent constituent decay and sedimentation. These models permit detailed resolution of complex coastal geometries as well as refined grid resolution in areas of special interest.
Further description of these models is provided in Appendix A Section A. The finite element grid used for farfield modeling during unstratified conditions is the same as that used by MWRA Figure 5. The model grid is highly resolved in Boston Harbor and in the vicinity of the alternative discharge sites where concentration gradients are likely to be large. Lower resolution is used in portions of Massachusetts Bay removed from the alternative discharge sites. TEA and ELA were also used to simulate discharge under vertically stratified conditions, during which the effluent plume would be trapped below the pycnocline.
The TEA model of Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay used to simulate circulation in non-stratified conditions was recalibrated during preparation of this Draft SEIS to more accurately simulate the semi-diurnal tidal circulation observed at the current meters during the Spring of The tidal forcing specified at the ocean boundary of TEA was recalculated based on a harmonic analysis of the tide gauge data and the bottom friction coefficient was readjusted.
A similar calibration was performed for stratified conditions. Net drifts are produced in the model by specifying a slope tilt at the ocean boundary. Tilts of 10 cm between Gloucester and Provincetown were found to provide net drifts similar to those measured. The net drift analysis also indicated that periods of low net drift occurred and, accordingly, TEA was also run with no boundary tilt. Because of linearity, concentrations are proportional to the loading and these base simulations can be used for any constituent. The net drift analyses showed that relatively stagnant periods of low drift can persist in Western Massachusetts Bay for up to approximately 10 days Section LL2.
Accordingly, worst-case ELA simulations were conducted for that duration. Plots of the results for a conservative tracer under average net drift, vertically unstratified conditions for Sites 2 and 5 are shown in Figure 5. It is seen that the constituent concentrations are higher at Site 2 than at Site 5. Background build-ups with the north-south and south-north boundary tilts were found to be closely equal and only north-south tilts were considered for the majority of the simulations.
Background build-up results are given in Table 5. It is seen that sensitivity to constituent decay rate is generally small, being greatest at Site 2 and least at Site 5. Differences between build-up during average and worst-case stagnant conditions is greatest at Site 5 and least at Site 2 because net drift currents at Site 2 are lower, and thus closer to non-net-drift conditions, than at Site 5. Dissolved Oxygen. For dissolved oxygen simulations, ELA was modified to include the processes of carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD decay, reaeration and sediment oxygen demand.
Predicted contour plots of dissolved oxygen deficit for primary treated effluent discharged at Sites 2 and 5, under average net drift, stratified conditions, are shown in Figures 5. DO deficits are the amounts by which DO is lowered below the ambient by the discharge. Contour plots for all DO deficit simulations are given in Appendix A. Maximum DO deficits averaged over an area of approximately 1.
Sediment deposition rates were determined for primary and secondary treated effluent discharges at the alternative sites, under both stratified and unstratified average net drift conditions.
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Simulations were carried out for fafl velocities of 0. Contour plots of the resultant total sediment accumulation rates for primary and secondary discharges at Site 5 under stratified conditions are given in Figures 5. At Sites 2 and k, the deposition was found to be more concentrated spacially, with higher deposition rates over smaller areas. These predicted sedimentation rates were used in Appendix B to determine sediment concentrations of effluent constituents. The sedimentation rates were also used in Appendix C to determine benthic enrichment. However, the fart ield analyses considered average and zero net drift conditions, and the highest shoreline concentrations can be expected as a result of sustained net drifts towards shore, most likely due to critical wind events.
A different model was therefore used for the shoreline impact analyses. The worst shoreline impacts will occur when the plume surfaces and is driven to the shore by ambient current. However, it is conceivable that upwelling of lower layer waters at the shoreline, due to a combination of events, could bring a submerged plume to the shoreline. Therefore, the protecting influence of stratification was neglected and the same analyses were conducted for stratified and non-stratified conditions.
This model simulates a discharge as a succession of puffs or short duration releases of effluent which are individually transported by the current and superimposed for continuous discharge simulations. An advantage of this approach is that it allows realistic three-dimensional diffusion of the effluent plume.
The currents used to drive the model are assumed to be spacially uniform, which is an obvious limitation, but also permits measured currents to be used, representing actual events. Simulations of discharges at each of the three alternative diffuser sites used current records from the nearest current meter station.
Criteria Co 1iance Evaluation 5. Contrary to individual constituents discharged in the effluent, dissolved oxygen deficits develop over a time scale of several days as a result of the BOD exertion. Therefore, the largest DO deficits are obtained in the farfield modeling and those were listed in Table 5. Actual DO levels will be equal to the ambient value minus the DO deficit. During the fail, however, the ambient DO can drop to 6. At that time, however, the pycnocline is very deep and weak and would not be able to trap the effluent plume in the lower layer.
The thickness of the lower layer would be about 3 m at Site 2 to 13 m at Site 5, with strong tidal variations, and these depths are not sufficient to contain the effluent plume. The low ambient DO values, however, would be reduced by resuspension of sediment deposited during the summer and this aspect is considered separately below. Resuspension Oxygen D and. Further dissolved oxygen exertion can occur as a result of sediment resuspension during storms or other events. During the fall, lower layer ambient DO concentrations drop to about 6. However, the effluent does not remain trapped in the lower layer and the minimum DO concentration, during a resuspension event, is therefore equal to the ambient DO minus the resuspension DO demand only.
The corresponding minimum DOs are listed in Table 5. These values can be obtained only once per year, at the end of the summer and assume the following combination of events: no resuspension event during 90 days in the summer, followed by a 10 day period of zero net drift, followed by a resuspension event. Given the limited expected duration of primary discharge, it is likely that such an event will never be experienced. At Site 14, the standard would be violated during resuspension events occurring while the water column is stratified.
The violations during resuspension events would be over a depth of approximately 10 m from the bottom. Unfortunately, data are not available to indicate how frequently resuspension events can occur at the various sites during stratified summer conditions. The large storms leading to resuspension occur most often in the winter when DO levels are usually higher.
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All rooms have espresso makers, robes and slippers, some have gas fireplaces and whirlpool tubs. And it's just a short walk to the harbor's other great restaurants, quaint shops, galleries, and boat trips. Steal away with your beloved to Wolf Cove Inn, a charming and unforgettable Maine hideaway. Maine Environmental Leader award. Oct 23, Brandy rated it it was amazing. All year round indulgence and outdoor activity in this breathtaking area is within easy reach or just stay in and relax together in the pub and game room, sitting room, and the atrium-enclosed hot tub, sauna, and gazebo overlooking the Ellis River. Tidal ellipses are presented in Appendix A, Attachment A.
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