A strong feeling of "white backlash" accompanied the passage of the Civil Rights Act of ; racial tensions sparked violence across the country as blacks tried to move beyond the limits of segregation — economically, politically, and socially — in the latter half of the twentieth century. Still, more than three decades after the act's passage, economic inequities persist in America. The conservative policies of U. The percentage of Americans living in poverty "rose in the s, when the government [cut] back its efforts" to support social programs Nicholas Lemann, "Up and Out," Washington Post National Weekly Edition, May June 4, , pp.
The budget cuts made by these Republican administrations drastically reduced black middle-class employment opportunities. According to the U. But the outlook for African American advancement is encouraging. Experts predict that by the year , blacks will account for nearly 12 percent of the American labor force. A strong black presence is evident in the fields of health care, business, and law, and a new spirit of entrepreneurship is burgeoning among young, upwardly-mobile African Americans. About 70 percent of blacks are making progress in nearly every aspect of American life: the black middle-class is increasing, white-collar employment is on the rise, and although the growth of black political and economic power is slow, it remains steady Joseph F.
Coates, Jennifer Jarratt, and John B. The other 30 percent of the black population, however, is trapped by a cycle of poor education, multigenerational poverty, and underemployment. The civil rights struggles of the s and beyond, then, must be primarily economic in nature. The abolitionist movement of the s joined a multiracial coalition in the quest for black emancipation and equality. In addition to agitating for civil rights through traditional legal means, the abolitionists took a daring step by operating the legendary Underground Railroad system, a covert network of safe havens that assisted fugitive slaves in their flight to freedom in the North.
The reality of the black plight was magnified in with the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Dred Scott vs. A slave named Dred Scott had traveled with his master out of the slave state of Missouri during the s and s. He sued his owner for freedom, arguing that his journeys to free territories made him free.
The Supreme Court disagreed and ruled that slaves could not file lawsuits because they lacked the status of a U. The Union victory in the Civil War and the abolition of slavery under President Abraham Lincoln consolidated black political support in the Republican party. This affiliation lasted throughout the end of the nineteenth century and into the early decades of the twentieth century — even after the Republicans began to loosen the reins on the Democratic South following the removal of the last federal troops from the area in Earlier in the post-Civil War Reconstruction era, African Americans made significant legislative gains — or so it seemed.
The Civil Rights Act of and the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution were intended to provide full citizenship — with all its rights and privileges — to all blacks. The Fifteenth Amendment , ratified in , granted black American men the right to vote. But the voting rights amendment failed in its attempts to guarantee blacks the freedom to choose at the ballot box. Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses were established by some state and local governments to deny blacks their right to vote. The poll tax would not be declared unconstitutional until , with the passage of the Twenty-fourth Amendment.
These legalized forms of oppression presented seemingly insurmountable obstacles to black advancement in the United States. Around the same time — the s — other forms of white supremacist sentiment came to the fore. The so-called "Jim Crow" laws of segregation — allowing for legal, systematic discrimination on the basis of race — were accepted throughout the nation.
Voting rights abuses persisted. And violence became a common tool of oppression: between and , nearly 3, lynchings took place, mainly in the southern states of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi , but also in some northern cities. By the turn of the twentieth century, Booker T.
Washington had gained prominence as the chief spokesperson on the state of black America and the issue of racial reconciliation. Recognized throughout the United States as an outstanding black leader and mediator, he advocated accommodationism as the preferred method of attaining black rights. His leading opponent, black historian, militant, and author W. Du Bois, felt it was necessary to take more aggressive measures in the fight for equality.
Du Bois spearheaded the Niagara Movement, a radical black intellectual forum, in The massive black migration to the North in the s showed that racial tension was no longer just a rural, southern issue. Anti-black attitudes, combined with the desperate economic pressures of the Great Depression , exerted a profound effect on politics nationwide. Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt attracted black voters with his " New Deal " relief and recovery programs in the s. For 70 years blacks had been faithful to the Republican Party — the party of Lincoln. But their belief in Roosevelt's "serious interest in the problem of the black man caused thousands of [African Americans] to change their party allegiance," noted John Hope Franklin in From Slavery to Freedom.
Housing and employment opportunities started to open up, and blacks began to gain seats in various state legislatures in the s and s. World War II ushered in an era of unswerving commitment to the fight for civil rights. According to Franklin, the continued "steady migration of [African Americans] to the North and West and their concentration in important industrial communities gave blacks a powerful new voice in political affairs.
In cities like Chicago, Detroit, and Cleveland they frequently held the balance of power in close elections, and in certain pivotal states the [black vote] came to be regarded as crucial in national elections. President Harry S Truman , who assumed office on the death of Roosevelt in , contributed to black advancement by desegregating the military, establishing fair employment practices in the federal service, and beginning the trend toward integration in public accommodations and housing.
His civil rights proposals of the late s came to fruition a decade later during President Eisenhower's administration. The Civil Rights Act of , also known as the Voting Rights Act of , was the first major piece of civil rights legislation passed by Congress in more than eight decades. It expanded the role of the federal government in civil rights matters and established the U. Commission on Civil Rights to monitor the protection of black rights. But the Commission soon determined that unfair voting practices persisted in the South; blacks were still being denied the right to vote in certain southern districts.
Because of these abuses, the Civil Rights Act of was followed three years later by a second act that offered extra protection to blacks at the polls.
In , yet another Voting Rights Act was passed to eliminate literacy tests and safeguard black rights during the voter registration process. The postwar agitation for black rights had yielded slow but significant advances in school desegregation and suffrage — advances that met with bold opposition from some whites. By the mid- to lates, as the black fight for progress gained ground, white resistance continued to mount. The movement began with the boycott of city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, and, by , had broadened in scope, becoming a national crusade for black rights.
Over the next decade, civil rights agitators — black and white — organized economic boycotts of racist businesses and attracted front-page news coverage with black voter registration drives and anti-segregationist demonstrations, marches, and sit-ins. Bolstered by the new era of independence that was simultaneously sweeping through sub-Saharan Africa, the movement for African American equality gained international attention. Around the same time, racial tensions — especially in the South — reached violent levels with the emergence of new white supremacist organizations and an increase in Ku Klux Klan activity.
Raciallymotivated discrimination on all fronts — from housing to employment — rose as Southern resistance to the civil rights movement intensified. By the late s, racist hatred had once again degenerated into brutality and bloodshed: blacks were being murdered for the cause, and their white killers were escaping punishment. In the midst of America's growing racial tragedy, Democrat John F. Kennedy gained the black vote in the presidential elections.
His domestic agenda centered on the expansion of federal action in civil rights cases — especially through the empowerment of the U. Department of Justice on voting rights issues and the establishment of the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. Civil rights organizations continued their peaceful assaults against barriers to integration, but black resistance to racial injustice was escalating.
Major demonstrations were staged that April, most notably in Birmingham, Alabama, under the leadership of King. Cries for equality met with harsh police action against the black crowds. Soon demonstrations were springing up throughout the nation, and Kennedy was contemplating his next move in the fight for black rights. On August 28, , over , black and white demonstrators converged at the Lincoln Memorial to push for the passage of a new civil rights bill.
This historic "March on Washington," highlighted by King's legendary "I Have a Dream" speech, brought the promise of stronger legislation from the president. After Kennedy's assassination that November, President Johnson continued his predecessor's civil rights program. The Ku Klux Klan stepped up its practice of black intimidation with venomous racial slurs, cross burnings, firebombings — even acts of murder. The call for racial reform in the South became louder in early King, who had been honored with the Nobel Peace Prize for his commitment to race relations, commanded the spotlight for his key role in the Freedom March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
But African Americans were disheartened by the lack of real progress in securing black rights. Despite the legislative gains made over two decades, John Hope Franklin noted that "between and the relative participation of [blacks] in the total economic life of the nation declined significantly. Black discontent over economic, employment, and housing discrimination reached frightening proportions in the summer of , with rioting in the Watts section of Los Angeles.
This event marked a major change in the temper of the civil rights movement. Nearly a decade of nonviolent resistance had failed to remedy the racial crisis in the United States; consequently, a more militant reformist element began to emerge. King's assassination in only compounded the nation's explosive racial situation. According to Franklin, King's murder symbolized for many blacks "the rejection by white America of their vigorous but peaceful pursuit of equality.
The new generation of black leaders seemed to champion independence and separatism for blacks rather than integration into white American society. Fear of black advancement led many whites to shift their allegiance to the Republican party in the late s. With the exception of President Jimmy Carter 's term in office from to , Republicans remained in the White House for the rest of the s and s.
But a new era of black activism arose with the election of Democratic president Bill Clinton in After a dozen years of conservatism under Presidents Reagan and Bush, Clinton was seen as a champion of "the people" — all people. Demonstrating a commitment to policies that would cut across the lines of gender, race, and economics, he offered a vision of social reform, urban renewal, and domestic harmony for the United States.
Once in office, Clinton appointed African Americans to key posts in his Cabinet, and the black population began wielding unprecedented influence in government. For example, the nd Congress included 25 African American representatives; the elections in brought black representation in the rd Congress up to Despite the advancements made by African Americans in politics and business, gang violence continued to plague African American communities in the s. On October 16, , close to one million African American men converged on the nation's capital to hear speeches and connect with other socially conscious black men.
In October , African American women held their own massive march. The Million Woman March attracted hundreds of thousands of African American women to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where they experienced a sense of community and cohesion. The attendees heard speeches and discussed issues such as the rising prison populations, the idea of independent schools for black children, the use of alternative medicines, and the progress of black women in politics and business.
Brave African American men and women have advanced the cause of peace and defended the ideals of freedom since the s. As far back as , blacks were fighting against the French and the Indians in the New World. Virginia and South Carolina allowed African Americans to enlist in the militia, and, throughout the eighteenth century, some slaves were able to exchange their military service for freedom. For nearly two centuries, however, segregation existed in the U. On March 5, , prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution , a crowd of angry colonists gathered in the streets of Boston, Massachusetts, to protest unjust British policies.
This colonial rally — which would later be remembered as the Boston Massacre — turned bloody when British soldiers retaliated with gunfire. A black sailor named Crispus Attucks is said to have been the first American to die in the conflict. The death of Attucks, one of the earliest acts of military service by blacks in America, symbolizes the cruel irony of the revolutionary cause in America — one that denied equal rights to its African American population.
The American Revolution focused increased attention on the thorny issue of slavery. An underlying fear existed that enslaved blacks would revolt if granted the right to bear arms, so most colonists favored the idea of an all-white militia. Although some blacks fought at the battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill in , General George Washington issued a ban on the enlistment of slaves that summer; by November, he had extended the ban to all blacks, slave or free. However, the Continental Congress — apprehensive about the prospect of black enlistment in the British Army — partially reversed the policy in the next year.
An estimated 5, blacks eventually fought in the colonial army. Integration of the fledgling American Army ended in , when Congress passed a law limiting military service to white men. More than half a century later, blacks were still unable to enlist in the U.
Many African Americans mistakenly perceived the Civil War, which began in April of , as a war against slavery. But as Alton Hornsby, Jr. By mid, though, the need for additional Union Army soldiers became critical. The Emancipation Proclamation , issued by Lincoln in , freed the slaves of the Confederacy. With their new "free" status, blacks were allowed to participate in the Civil War.
By the winter of , the Union Army boasted volunteer regiments of black troops, comprising more than ten percent of its total strength; over 35, blacks died in combat. Between , and , African Americans served in the U. Blacks were still hampered by segregationist policies that perpetuated an erroneous notion of inferiority among the troops; however, the stellar performance of many black soldiers during the era of the world wars helped to dispel these stereotypes.
In , for example, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. Over the next decade, his son, U. Air Force officer Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Still, according to John Hope Franklin in From Slavery to Freedom, "too many clear signs indicated that the United States was committed to maintaining a white army and a black army, and ironically the combined forces of this army had to be used together somehow to carry on the fight against the powerful threat of fascism and racism in the world.
In an effort to promote equality and opportunity in the American military, President Truman issued Executive Order on July 26, , banning segregation in the armed forces. Six years later, the U. Department of Defense adopted an official policy of full integration, abolishing all-black military units. The late s and early s saw a steady increase in the number of career officers in the U. By the mids, close to 40 percent of the American military was black. Some social commentators feel that this disproportionately high percentage of African Americans in the military — the entire black population in the United States being around 12 percent — calls attention to the obstacles young black people face in forging a path into mainstream American business.
African Americans have made notable contributions to American popular culture, to government policy, and to the arts and sciences. The following is a mere sampling of African American achievement:. Alain Locke — was a prolific author, historian, educator, and drama critic. A Harvard University graduate and Rhodes Scholar, he taught philosophy at Howard University for 36 years and is remembered as a leading figure in the Harlem Renaissance.
For more than three decades, social scientist and Spingarn medalist Kenneth B. Clark — taught psychology at New York 's City College; his work on the psychology of segregation played an important part in the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education. In dynamic anthropologist and writer Johnnetta B. Cole — became the first African American woman president of Spelman College, the nation's oldest and most esteemed institution of higher learning for black women.
Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Actor Charles Gilpin — is considered the dean of early African American theater. Richard B. Harrison — was an esteemed actor who gained national prominence for his portrayal of "De Lawd" in Green Pastures. Actor, writer, director, and civil rights activist Ossie Davis — is committed to advancing black pride through his work.
He has been a groundbreaking figure in American theater, film, and television for five decades. Best known for her role as Mammy in Gone with the Wind , Hattie McDaniel — was awarded the Oscar for best supporting actress — the first Oscar ever won by an African American performer. Actress and writer Anna Deavere Smith — , a bold and intriguing new force in American theater, examines issues like racism and justice in original works such as Fires in the Mirror and Twilight: Los Angeles Dancer and choreographer Katherine Dunham ? She is best known for blending elements of traditional Caribbean dance with modern African American rhythms and dance forms.
Also a noted activist, Dunham went on a day hunger strike in to protest U. Dancer and actor Gregory Hines has earned a place among the great African American entertainers. A tap dancer since childhood, Hines has acted in numerous plays and movies and has received many awards for his efforts. In , the programmer announced the creation of an internet site for the network. Johnson said, "BET.
Alexander Lucius Twilight, the first African American elected to public office, was sent to the Vermont legislature in by the voters of Orleans County. Less than a decade later, William A. Leidesdorf, a black political official, was named sub-consul to the Mexican territory of Yerba Buena San Francisco ; he also served on the San Francisco town council and held the post of town treasurer. Attorney and educator Charles Hamilton Houston — was a brilliant leader in the legal battle to erode segregation in the United States; his student, Thurgood Marshall — , successfully argued against the constitutionality of segregation in Brown vs.
Board of Education Supreme Court justice in Career military officer Colin Powell — made his mark on American history as the first black chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , a position he held from to Some political observers have pegged him as a U. An early follower of Martin Luther King, Jr. In and he campaigned for the Democratic nomination for the U. Founder of Operation PUSH and the National Rainbow Coalition, Jackson is committed to the economic, social, and political advancement of America's dispossessed and disfranchised peoples.
Attorney and politician Carol Moseley-Braun — won election to the U. Senate in , making her the first black woman senator in the nation. Kweisi Mfume born Frizzell Gray; — , a Democratic congressional representative from Maryland for half a dozen years, became the chairman of the powerful Congressional Black Caucus in Frederick Douglass — , the famous fugitive slave and abolitionist, recognized the power of the press and used it to paint a graphic portrait of the horrors of slavery.
He founded The North Star, a black newspaper, in , to expose the reality of the black condition in nineteenth century America. John Henry Murphy — , a former slave and founder of the Baltimore Afro-American, was inspired by a desire to represent black causes with honor and integrity. Activist and journalist T. Thomas Fortune — , a staunch defender of black rights during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, used his editorial position at various urban newspapers in the North to crusade for an end to racial discrimination. Robert S.
Abbott — was a key figure in the development of black journalism in the twentieth century. The first issue of his Chicago Defender went to press in Charlayne Hunter-Gault — broke the color barrier at the University of Georgia , receiving her degree in journalism from the formerly segregated institution in Langston Hughes — was a major figure of the Harlem Renaissance , a period of intense artistic and intellectual activity centered in New York City's black community during the early s. The author of poetry, long and short fiction, plays, autobiographical works, and nonfiction pieces, Hughes infused his writings with the texture of urban African Americana.
Pulitzer Prize-winning author Alex Haley — traced his African heritage, his ancestors' agonizing journey to the New World, and the brutal system of slavery in the United States in his unforgettable bestseller Roots. Bob Kaufman — was the most prominent African American beatnik poet, and he is considered by many to be the finest. Maya Angelou — , renowned chronicler of the black American experience, earned national acclaim in with the publication of the first volume of her autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings; she presented her moving original verse, On the Pulse of Morning, at the inauguration of U.
In the late s, Terry McMillan — emerged as a powerful new voice on the literary scene; her novel Waiting to Exhale was a runaway bestseller. African Americans have made a profound impact on the nation's musical history. The blues and jazz genres, both rooted in black culture, exerted an unquestionable influence on the development of rock and soul music in the United States. The blues, an improvisational African American musical form, originated around in the Mississippi Delta region.
Some of its pioneering figures include legendary cornetist, bandleader, and composer W. Handy — , often called the "Father of the Blues"; singing marvel Bessie Smith — , remembered as the "Empress of the Blues"; and Muddy Waters — , a practitioner of the urban blues strain that evolved in Chicago in the s. Jazz, a blend of European traditional music, blues, and Southern instrumental ragtime, developed in the South in the s. Key figures in the evolution of jazz include New Orleans horn player and "swing" master Louis Armstrong "Satchmo"; — , who scored big with hits like "Hello, Dolly" and "What a Wonderful World"; Lionel Hampton — , the first jazz musician to popularize vibes; trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie — a chief architect of a more modern form of jazz called "bebop"; singer Ella Fitzgerald — , a master of improvisation who came to be known as "The First Lady of Song"; innovative and enigmatic trumpeter, composer, and bandleader Miles Davis — , who pioneered the genre's avantgarde period in the s and electrified jazz with elements of funk and rock — beginning the "fusion" movement — in the late s; and Melba Liston — , trombonist, arranger, and leader of an all-female jazz group in the s and s.
July 7, Saint Patrick's Battalion San Patricios was a group of several hundred immigrant soldiers, the majority Irish, who deserted the U. The war damaged public expression of German ethnic, linguistic, and cultural institutions almost beyond repair". What matters is the knowledge that those words represent. Given the reasoning of some on this post, more than a few; crime is far complex than mere demographics can account for.
Vocalist, composer, and historian Bernice Johnson Reagon — , founder of the female a cappella ensemble Sweet Honey in the Rock, is committed to maintaining Africa's diverse musical heritage. In the field of classical music, Marian Anderson — , one of the greatest contraltos of all time, found herself a victim of racial prejudice in her own country. A star in Europe for years before her American debut, she was actually barred from making an appearance at Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution in April of — an incident that prompted First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to resign from the organization.
Composer and pianist Margaret Bonds — wrote works that explore the African American experience. African Americans continue to set trends and break barriers in the music business, especially in pop, rap, blues, and jazz music. Granville T. Woods — was a trailblazer in the fields of electrical and mechanical engineering whose various inventions include a telephone transmitter, an egg incubator, and a railway telegraph. His contemporary, George Washington Carver ? Inventor Garrett A.
Morgan — , a self-educated genius, developed the first gas mask and traffic signal. Ernest Everett Just — , recipient of the first Spingarn medal ever given by the NAACP, made important contributions to the studies of marine biology and cell behavior. Another Spingarn medalist, Percy Lavon Julien — , was a maverick in the field of organic chemistry. He created synthesized versions of cortisone to relieve the pain and inflammation of arthritis and physostigmine to reduce the debilitating effects of glaucoma.
Surgeon and scientist Charles Richard Drew — refined techniques of preserving liquid blood plasma. Samuel L. Kountz — , an international leader in transplant surgery, successfully transplanted a kidney from a mother to a daughter — the first operation of its kind between individuals who were not identical twins. He also pioneered anti-rejection therapy in transplant patients. Benjamin Carson — is a pediatric neurosurgeon who gained international acclaim in by separating a pair of Siamese twins who were joined at their heads. Medical doctor and former astronaut Mae C. She was a crew member on the flight of the space shuttle Endeavour.
Harriet Tubman ? A nurse and spy for the Union Army during the Civil War, she earned distinction as the chief "conductor" of the Underground Railroad, leading an estimated slaves to freedom in the North. Attorney, writer, activist, educator, and foreign consul James Weldon Johnson — was an early leader of the NAACP and a strong believer in the need for black unity as the legal fight for civil rights evolved.
He composed the black anthem "Lift Every Voice and Sing" in Labor and civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph — fought for greater economic opportunity in the black community. A presidential consultant in the s, s, and s and a key organizer of the March on Washington, Randolph is probably best remembered for his role in establishing the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters , the first black union in the country, in Ella Baker — , renowned for her organizational and leadership skills, co-founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference , the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee , and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party — groups that were at the forefront of civil rights activism in the United States.
Mississippi native Fannie Lou Hamer — was an impassioned warrior in the fight for black voter rights, black economic advancement, and women's rights. Rosa Parks — sparked the Montgomery bus boycott in December of when her refusal to give up her seat to a white passenger landed her in jail. A fiery speaker who urged blacks to seize self-determination "by any means necessary," Malcolm embraced the concept of global unity toward the end of his life and revised his black separatist ideas.
In he was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam — an organization with which he had severed earlier ties. Randall Robinson ? A Brooklyn Dodger from to , Jackie Robinson — is credited with breaking the color barrier in professional baseball. Phenomenal Cleveland Brown running back Jim Brown — , a superstar of the late s and s, helped change the face of professional football — a sport that for years had been dominated by whites. The on-court skills and charisma of two of the top NBA players of the s and early s, retired Los Angeles Laker Earvin "Magic" Johnson — and Chicago Bull Michael Jordan — left indelible marks on the game of basketball.
Track sensation Jesse Owens — blasted the notion of Aryan supremacy by winning four gold medals at the Olympics in Berlin. Wilma Rudolph — overcame the crippling complications of polio and became the first American woman to win three Olympic gold medals in track and field. Always colorful and controversial, Olympic gold medalist and longtime heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali born Cassius Clay; — was a boxing sensation throughout the s and remains one of the most widely recognized figures in the sport's history.
Althea Gibson — and Arthur Ashe — both rocked the tennis world with their accomplishments: Gibson, the first black player ever to win at Wimbledon, was a pioneer in the white-dominated game at the dawn of the civil rights era. Ashe, a dedicated activist who fought against racial discrimination in all sports, was the first African American male to triumph at Wimbledon, the U. Open, and the Australian Open. Sculptor Sargent Johnson — , a three-time winner of the prestigious Harmon Foundation medal for outstanding black artist, was heavily influenced by the art forms of Africa.
Romare Bearden — was a highly acclaimed painter, collagist, and photomontagist who depicted the black experience in his work. His images reflect black urban life, music, religion, and the power of the family. A series titled The Prevalence of Ritual is one of his best-known works. Jacob Lawrence — , a renowned painter, has depicted through his art both the history of racial injustice and the promise of racial harmony in America. Augusta Savage — , a Harlem Renaissance sculptor, was the first black woman to win acceptance in the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors.
Multimedia artist and activist Faith Ringgold — seeks to raise the consciousness of her audience by focusing on themes of racial and gender-based discrimination. Ringgold is known for weaving surrealist elements into her artworks; her storytelling quilt Tar Beach inspired a children's book of the same title. Founded in as Negro American Literature Forum, this quarterly publication contains interviews and essays on black American art , literature, and culture.
Now known as the New York Amsterdam News, this source was founded in and is devoted to black community-interest stories. Address: Powell-Savory Corp. Founded in by Robert S. Abbott as a black weekly newspaper, it is now a daily paper with a black perspective. The official publication of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People , this monthly magazine, founded in , features articles on civil rights issues.
Both of these publications are part of the family of Johnson Publications, which was established in the s by entrepreneur John H. Ebony, a monthly magazine, and Jet, a newsweekly, cover African Americans in politics, business, and the arts. Contact: Ebony — Lerone Bennett, Jr.
Address: Johnson Publishing Co. Address: Essence Communications, Inc. Founded in , this source offers a quarterly review of progress made in the ongoing movement for human freedom. The first cable network devoted exclusively to black programming, BET features news, public affairs and talk shows, television magazines, sports updates, concerts, videos, and syndicated series. Groundbreaking black-owned television station that first went on the air September 29, ; began as an independent network; became a CBS-affiliate in Founded in to support and promote independently produced film and video work for African American artists.
A nonprofit organization founded in to fight discrimination and civil rights violations through the nation's court system. Contact: Elaine R. Jones , Director-Counsel. Its goals are the elimination of racial prejudice and the achievement of equal rights for all people. Address: Headquarters — Mt. Hope Drive, Baltimore, Maryland Telephone: For general information, contact New York office — Provides financial and technical support to projects that address the needs of black communities throughout the United States.
Formed in in New York by the merger of three committees that sought to protect the rights of the city's black population. Best known for piloting the decades-long fight against racial discrimination in the United States, the National Urban League and its regional branches are also active in the struggle for political and economic advancement among African Americans and impoverished people of all colors. An educational service agency founded in with Martin Luther King, Jr.
Continues to foster a philosophy of nonviolent resistance. Carter G. Woodson in ASALH is committed to the collection, preservation, and promotion of black history. The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. Founded in by Coretta Scott King to uphold the philosophy and work of her husband, the slain civil rights leader. Schomburg to preserve the historical past of people of African descent.
It is widely regarded as the world's leading repository for materials and artifacts on black cultural life. African American Almanac. Edited by Alva Barnett and James L. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers, Bennett, Lerone, Jr. New York: Penguin, New York: Citadel Press, originally published in Franklin, John Hope, with Alfred A.
Moss, Jr. New York: Knopf, originally published in Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. The Future of the Race. New York: Vintage Books, Lemann, Nicholas. New York: Knopf, Lynd, Staughton. Class Conflict, Slavery, and the U. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, originally published in Mannix, Daniel Pratt. NewYork: Viking, Parham, Vanessa Roberts. Sandcastle Publishing, Segal, Ronald. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Smitherman, Geneva. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Von Eschen, Penny M.
Woodson, Carter G. The Negro in Our History. Washington, D. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. July 8, Retrieved July 08, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Race and foreign affairs have intersected at numerous points in U. Officials in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were not always explicitly aware of the impact of race on foreign relations or on their own decision making, but its impact on historical events is demonstrable.
Beginning with the American Revolution and continuing through the twentieth century, race influenced what the United States did and how it pursued its interests abroad. Black volunteers, detesting slavery and wanting liberty, fought on both sides of the revolutionary war. The activities of African-American revolutionaries were matched by those of black loyalists, some of whom were deliberately recruited into military service by British commanders eager to destabilize the plantation economy, especially in tidewater Virginia.
This British policy was bitterly resented by slaveholders. Many of these soldiers retreated to Canada with the British after Freedom proved elusive for black protagonists on both sides. Slavery persisted as a national institution and free people of color increasingly faced racial discrimination during the course of the antebellum period. Some loyalists who evacuated with the British were sold into slavery in the West Indies.
Others found barriers to civil equality in their new Canadian homes.
Race was a factor in the maritime trades and in navies during the age of sail. Black men from North America , the Caribbean, and Africa, slave and free, were among the thousands employed in a range of industries and at war. They served on slavers, whalers, packet boats, warships, and were represented as sailors in almost all sectors of maritime activity. Rules governing the movements of both enslaved sailors and free men of color affected relations among states.
In the antebellum South during periods of slave unrest, authorities enforced regulations that restricted the portside activities of West Indian seamen. Violators were threatened with enslavement. Abuse of foreign black sailors in U. The seamen's papers given black American sailors in did not afford them substantial protection from infringements on their rights, and until , when civil equality was extended to black sailors in the British navy, black seamen of all nationalities were readily exploited, and those who were free faced the risk of illegal enslavement. Impressment was a danger for all U.
Those recruited into the British navy could expect harsher treatment than that experienced aboard U. The fate of black loyalists enslaved in the West Indies during the American Revolution contributed to anti-British feeling among some African Americans in the early nineteenth century and helped preserve their loyalty to the United States during those years. The United States , however, was reluctant to recruit blacks into any armed forces except the navy. As a result, there were few black combatants except for those enlisted as volunteers in state units.
The United States and Britain ultimately employed the same tactic that had been used in the revolutionary war in promising manumission to those who fought or served as military laborers. Those who allied themselves with Britain were taken to Canada at the end of the war and settled on plots of land. While many of the manumission promises made by U. In Western countries, efforts to limit slavery began with the prohibition of the African slave trade and attempts to enforce an international ban on this traffic. Britain outlawed the slave trade in its possessions in , and the United States soon followed suit, effective as of 1 January While the U.
The abolitionist movement then focused on eradicating slavery itself. Antislavery activists created cooperative networks where they proselytized against slavery and abetted the escape of fugitives. Some antislavery activities had an international character. One campaign, noted in the cities of the northeastern United States and in Great Britain , focused on encouraging consumers to buy products grown without slave labor. The effort met with indifferent success but provided small ephemeral markets for imports from Haiti — a country that had gained its independence through slave rebellion — and after , the British West Indies.
The promotion of free labor produce coincided with a growing conviction in the northern United States and Britain that wage labor was the most rational, just, and efficient method of work, and with the social and political evolution of industrial society in those areas. The British Parliament in enacted a gradual abolition program that ended slavery in British dominions by Between and a small African-American community had gathered in Britain. As most American universities barred black students, some were attending universities of far higher caliber than those in the United States.
Others were fugitives who had made their way to a country where slavery was prohibited. Such prominent U. Black abolitionists gave public lectures and sold copies of slave narratives written by themselves and others. They succeeded in thwarting many of the fund-raising efforts of the American Colonization Society , established in — to resettle blacks on the west coast of Africa.
Douglass spent nineteen months lecturing in the British Isles between and British Quakers raised the money to buy Douglass's freedom from his Maryland owner. Antislavery activists hoped that pressure applied by Britain, then the world's most powerful nation, would persuade the United States to deal forthrightly with the slavery question. Abolitionists did not succeed in capturing all Britons.
They faced the opposition of those manufacturers and workers most dependent on imports of U. The groundwork that Douglass, the Remonds, and others laid helped neutralize British sympathies for southern slaveholders. This was a critical issue during the s, when sectional animosity reached a crisis point in the United States. If Britain, despite its own antislavery stand within its realms, allied with the Confederacy during the U.
Civil War , the United States would likely be defeated. While American abolitionists often avoided direct discussions of class conflict because of their frequent reliance on elite patronage in Britain and their desire to keep the focus on slavery, the zenith of their activity coincided with the Chartist movement, which sought to improve conditions for the industrial working class, and debates over the status of labor. American slavery was also drawn into the international arena as a result of the activities of fugitive slaves.
In the course of the nineteenth century some thirty thousand black persons from the United States entered Canada. Periods of domestic crisis, such as the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of and the Dred Scott decision, accelerated this immigration. The Fugitive Slave Act made it easy for slaveholders and bounty hunters to threaten the liberty of free people of color. In an explicitly racist finding, the Supreme Court, in the case Scott v. Sandford, ruled that blacks could not be citizens and had no civil rights. The decision effectively ended the prospects of free people of color in the United States until after the Civil War.
Many who were able left the country. In addition to the relatively familiar escapes to Canada by slaves and free people alike, blacks from Texas crossed the border into Mexico, where slavery was illegal. During the early years of the Republic, when Spain loosely administered Florida , fugitives in combination with the Seminole nation engaged the United States in wars in — and — In the aftermath of the first Seminole war, Spain, unable and unwilling to guarantee the security of U.
Fugitives also included those whose antislavery activities put them in jeopardy of the law. Frederick Douglass in was a suspect in John Brown 's conspiracy to seize the federal armory in Harpers Ferry , Virginia. Douglass fled to England to avoid arrest. Once there, he contacted the U. James's hoping to secure a passport to visit France. The passport was denied on grounds that Douglass, according to Supreme Court dicta, was not a U.
Douglass was an early victim of passport denial, a practice that would be used in the twentieth century to restrict the movements of blacks who were known critics of racial discrimination. Opinion leaders on both sides of the slavery question during the antebellum period expressed fears about the consequences of emancipation.
Some abolitionists believed that slavery was morally wrong but did not think that freed slaves could be assimilated into American society for racial reasons. Certain proslavery advocates used these doubts about assimilation to argue that slavery could not be eradicated. Some categories of crime are committed more by whites: child abuse, drug dealing, carrying illegal guns, etc. Blacks rape, rob and kill far more white people than the reverse. That is one of the reasons why police officers police officers kill so many black males.
They are the criminals committing the most serious crimes,. O my god the poor black man was shot leaving bible study. Interesting about the colonization and genocide. Where were the black American colonies as I never heard of any. As for arrests being racist, the statistics show that White-on-Black crime is low by any measure and higher for Black-on-White Crime and the Black crime rate is many times that of whites, thus more arrests and more blacks in prizon as a percentage of population.
But the crime rates versus incarcerations are very close. We are talking about poor blacks deserving protection as much as wealthier whites. Racism is the convenient scapegoat. Blacks in America are in a tight spot. We are experiencing the end of european racial domination. Whites are being replaced by Asians and Hispanics.
The California legislature is dominated by hispanic lawmakers. There are not enough Republicans in this state for a hand of bridge. Those new law makers are interested in pushing for their own people; black have no power and no place at the table in this new world. They can cry about slavery, but none of the new ruling class is going to give a darn.
They truly are going to be at the back of the bus again. If you are poor in America, then the reason is in the mirror. So I could care less if the guy who murdered my neighbor was poor and it is not material to the fact. How many murders come from a house with a father. How many violent crimes are committed from what group. But the King has no cloths , and BLM.
So, if your poor, its ok to have bad judgement, make immoral decisions? How does one come up with the statement inner city residents deprived of services when all services welfare are located in inner cities. But you can pull into store parking lots and not be approached by 5 people or more asking for money. You can paint it up any way you want but when I was young and poor , in the countryside, we were, and still are good people.
If you were hungry, you fished, hunted. People are tired of this pc crap, if its an apple, call it an apple! The homicide rate for Africa is far higher than any other continent although poverty may be a result of this as much as a cause. I do actually think its sub culture and when that changes I think you will see a huge drop in the crime rate amongst Blacks, its literally the only factor that truly explains it, as apart from that we are all exactly the same mammal. During WWII, the American Japanese were rounded up and sent to camps, robbed of their homes and belongings and treated like criminals.
Asians are now out-performing all other American races in every positive measure. School test scores, salaries and so on. They grow. They prosper. What uninformed and naive comments. Yes, Western Cultures did conquered many countries, but so did Middle East and Asian countries troughout history try and conquer Western counties. Genghis Khan, the Moors in Spain. History is about conquering other cultures. Whites do not have a monopoly, they just did it better. They said people of a certain skin color commit a hugely disproportionate number of murders each year.
People would be up In arms demanding that things be more in line with their numbers. You are using the wrong base. You compare this groups with what the FBI defines as whites. The FBI description was developed in the s and has not been updated since. All murders committed by Hispanics are classified as white.
Check the ucr definitions on the FBI site. Cops kill more black young men because this is the group that is the most violent. Control for race and America has one of the lowest murder rates in the world. Why get into statistics when simple emotional intelligence shouts the reason. Poverty is the number one cause that pushes people into crimes. White people in poor neighbourhoods commit just as much crimes as blacks, and black people in well off areas commit no crimes.
Or did you make this up? Give us some credible statistic to support your absurd claim. Check it yourself. There are nore whites in poverty than Blacks because there are more whites in the U. When you logistically regress for the percentage populations, Blacks experience a higher rate of poverty than Whites. Do you have any research that states that crime is NOT linked to poverty? Since most of you people seem to be concerned with black on black crime…thanks!
But who does that leave to be advocates for the 84 percent of white victims were killed by white offenders? Over the years, polls have consistently shown that most Americans think crime in general is getting worse, but feel perfectly safe in their own neighborhoods. Polls also continue to show that a solid majority of Americans think crime is getting worse, even though the crime rate has been in a year free fall. Do you think this might have something to do with the arrest which masks crime stats? The national victim survey administered by the Bureau of Census annually demonstrates that Black people are overwhelming the perpetrator of violent crimes.
It is true that whites account for the vast major of murders where the victim is white. The chances of being a white homicide victim is minuscule. Not the case for Black men. The CDC tells us that the leading cause of death of young Black men and boys is homicide; at the hands of another Black male. Its so refreshing to see that someone has a real handle on this. I lived in poland for 8 years, I once fell asleep on a bus an a black guy woke me up so i didnt miss my stop talking to me in polish.
Unfortunately crime among the poor is more violent also no matter if you are black or white. Actually, blacks commit a disproportionate amount of white collar crime as well as serial killings. Look it up. But blacks have far more single, female parent situations than whites. So this too likely comes down to individual choice and probably is indicative of a sub-culture that tolerates single women rearing out of wedlock children alone.
Again, personal choice often has long-lasting ramifications, especially in the overall outcomes of children. Oh, I see. So, this is all a ginned up political play by Obama, Sharpton, and Holder. Nice article. For example what portion of these violent crimes are gang related and whether those are analyzed differently. Black people tend to be more disadvantaged because they offend more. Stop making excuses for freely chosen criminality. Keep in mind that those statistics are reported crimes. I live in Baltimore and I see crimes happen all the time that go unreported.
Ed if you see crimes happen everyday that go unreported, then you are as guilty as the person who is committing them. Your argument proves nothing. Patrick — Verifiable statistical data supporting the information you presented was omitted. Statistics requires analysis of data and a understanding of the results for accurate communication of the findings. Your article lacks supporting evidence for a subjective premise. We need to stop shaming them for putting their lives on the line for us. Maybe they do. But there are reasons for everything. Watched Ross Kemp on American gangs. Rap artists mainly celebrate leaving dark times to be successful musicians.
Some notable posts did point out, for example, how chicago broken down by race still shows a huge proponderance of crime committed by blacks versus whites and others assuming equal economic level in general and another post discusses stats of single-mother black families in abundance affecting outcomes of children and eventually leading to crime and still another post talks about the influence of rap music on black culture leading to discontent and violence. Almost every time I listen to any black music or comedian for that matter, I have noticed its about race and the implications are to get back at whitey.
Unfortunately for those blacks who are indeed decent, and there are certainly many, it is tough for them to face the stats and to be objective. There are problems with the black community that, whether from genetics, environment or whatever, must be faced and its not all about whitey some of us are hard working poor and not everyone is holding our doors.
To anyone who denies genetics is part of this merely needs to do a little health history for predisposition to diseases where association with race definitely can be proven. Genetics is no doubt a factor in other aspects of our lives. People like Obama, Holder, Jackson and Sharpton are proponents who unfairly blame whitey at every turn but have no answer for people like blacks like Ben Carson who outshine them by miles!
Whitey has, in fact, been behind much of the improvement of blacks in this country so to lump us all together denies how slavery was ended by Lincoln and civil rights was started by Johnson with the Great Society and supported by many whites and up to today there are so many examples of opportunities for not just blacks but all Americans including the recent mal-contents, muslims hope we can all survive.
I believe it just takes working together always with respect for each other and not flying off the handle about the latest wrong done to you or to me. That working together for this generation of blacks seems to be a growing problem, whether it comes from genetics, environment or whatever. You can argue that the hood is not yet wiped clean from the backgrounds of many of these rich sports black criminals but its just blaming the same old poverty and of course whitey who put all blacks down.
It is interesting to also look at crime stats associated with the differences in IQ scores correlated with the rise of socioeconomic status. I believe poverty does have its influences but so does education, health care and having a job and holding one as a ticket to the better life.
Perhaps here is where some blacks may lose it. To them I would say eat your share of crow and one day you will be eating a fine steak. Finally there is a need for more studies of violent crime amongst the rich by proportion in this country to see those stats. It will take hard work for all to improve things in this country but blacks are in an extremely difficult position these days and must face reality for more obviously glaring problems as mentioned, like single mother families shouldering the burden of raising fatherless children and also being hit with the negative influences of foolish politicians and negative hateful rap music throwing the race care any chance they can to feed off their own people!
Black people are NOT genetically predisposed to criminal behavior. How do I know? I am Black, not a criminal, and have studied people and health. If Blacks were genetically predisposed to be criminals 1. Lincoln did not give a damn about slaves. Emancipation did not become an issue until well after there was going to be a Civil War. Johnson did NOT start the civil rights movement. It started long before him. Before you try to tell me about the minority of Whites who helped Blacks go look into the majority who caused multi-generational problems for Blacks.
This happened in most places where there was European invasion and colonial rule. Look at South Africa. The Caribbean. The list can go on and on and on. No, I will not clap because someone attempted to fix a problem that they created in the first place. What I took from what he was saying is that we are all human and we all need to work together he actually gave praise to Ben Carson who is an African American. I believe in my heart of hearts that the Ancient Egyptians were black and if this legacy can be restored to the black people this would help them very much in healing over past wrong doings by white.
Because the Egyptians had white slaves. There is an elephant in the room, and only one person ventured to touch on it: children and youth are deeply influenced by violent images, culture and music. There are multiple generations growing up without benefit of healthy father figures, lacking in basic self-esteem, vastly undereducated and in need of healthy, proper outlets. These young people need to be properly schooled, taught vocational skills and need healthy examples of adults around them or they will get caught up in violent crimes.
To turn this around, we need to agree on these basics things and do massive outreach. Letting people who have been let down again and again by the system to try to solve this themselves is just not going to cut it. It takes a tribe to raise the child. There needs to be think-tanks and action-oriented committees with fresh, new bold approaches. Not the same old, tired liberal hand-wringing followed by tossing cash in their general direction. Kids are being raised In Single family homes with 7 kids and they are kicked out on the street.
No father. Taught this is the way to beat the system. Blacks are over represented in this industry and it is the only genre of music where people are preceived successful if their trousers are half way down their legs,using profanities and acting threatening. With lyrics about unlawfully acquired wealth, violence, degrading attitudes to women and disrespect and contempt to the police.
While there should be no excuses at this point why u staggeringly high numbers of young black men end up in prison, all this information must be used to attempt changing the status quo. Yeah, yeah, yeah. My blinders have been off a long time to your foolishness. There are numerous problems within society, regardless of race. Lots of children, from many different backgrounds are affected by that and enjoy listening to that. Likewise, the same is true of our youth when it comes to violence and promiscuity in the media, video games, etc.
All of our children are falling by the wayside. Integration was honestly one of the worst things to happen to us not saying that segregation was good, but only that forced integration was bad. Everyone knows blacks commit more crime than whites. The truth of the matter is whites are the only non-racist race in the whole world because they are the most civilized and only minority of them are bad. There is black president in America… and Oprah is the most powerful woman…. Whereas in present day Kenya people are hackled to death and burned to ashes just because they are from different tribe……… I can go on and on… but everyone knows what the truth is.
A world where people are burned and hacked to death? Whites stepped on everyone else to get to the top. You look to East Africa but forget South Africa where apartheid was still legal less than 30 years ago. Whites are NOT the most civilized. If you need help understanding why, look to the U.
Everyone is born with a sense of right and wrong and we fine tune this as we age. But by the time we have reached our teen years we should all know that robbery, rape, murder and assault are all the wrong things to be injecting into society. If that is not understood by then we have a serious problem. When this is all they are subject to children will learn by example and it becomes a never ending cycle. Certain communities need to wake up and get with the program or things will never change.
According to an estimate I read on Wiki, Men, then, are vastly more homicidal thantheeir numbers should justify. How many would argue that men are inherently, by nature, homicidal? Given the reasoning of some on this post, more than a few; crime is far complex than mere demographics can account for. In reality women are just as violent as men.
This is, at the least, a poorly structured sentence. As it is, it suggests that young black men are percent of the population. You have to also realize the government considers Mexican mestizos to be white. That serves to increase the amount of white crime. Interesting comments. I do have one request though that I think would add to the comments. I think that would help as far as getting an idea as to what people are thinking based on their own experiences and backgrounds.
I am wondering when I read a comment If the person is just wondering what it may be like or if they are prejudice etc. Blacks embarrass themselves through bad behavior. Not all blacks, but a large enough group to be statistically significant. Facts are facts, blacks commit 3 times more violent crimes and up to 6 times more murders. My dad was an alcoholic that drank away the majority of the money and my mom spent her time sleeping around. Being poor is an excuse, but it is based on the acceptance of bad behavior. In similar situations, with the only difference being the percentage of blacks, the crime rate and racism were drastically different.
Crime was almost non-existent in the white community, which was slightly poorer. And furthermore, why do blacks riot more often? Why do the riots always end up in looting? It is because crime is generally accepted as more palatable in black communities. My personal belief, based on my opinion so it is useless to argue with an opinion, is that crime is more acceptable because we have conditioned blacks to become wards of the state. When they become dependent on the government income, they slowly but surely become entitled.
And entitlement makes people feel as though what they want should be theirs…and over time it becomes ok to act out on that feeling. Obviously I have generalized an entire race…which is never an accurate portrayal. There are many fine black people that work hard and are as accomplished as anyone else. How about internal accountability? When blacks expect more of themselves and stop accepting poor behavior, they will actually have a chance at equality. Except there is a difference between the two. Homicide is the killing of one person by another. Murder is a form of criminal homicide, where the perpetrator intended to kill the other person.
Homicides are criminal, excusable, or justifiable. A criminal homicide is unjustifiable, with consequences being severe. An excusable or justifiable homicide is one without criminal intent to kill someone. Examples of excusable or justifiable homicide would be someone killing someone else as a means of self defense, or defending another person, or law enforcement who kills someone in the line of duty. I had a nice car and the cop swore I stole it. They have by racists white law killed or put innocent people of color in jail. In Congress also passed the Ku Klux Klan Act, which allowed the government to act against terrorist organizations.
Some say oh this is their heritage. Oh, I guess Americans that fight with isis and fly their flag is heritage too. The treasonous traitors fly that toilet paper confederate flag, they fought against our country and lost. Looser for life. A terrorist is a terrorist. Are there any statistics, or any information, about rate of crime in poor White areas like in the Appalachia mountains where the Whites are poorer than most Blacks?
There are areas of White poverty. The crime rate is almost equal between the Hispanics and Whites. The majority of people in this town are economically disadvantaged. So I think poverty and lack of education plays a role. Although there is a small college in the town and the Black sports players cause a lot of problems, like theft and assault.
He never made any excuses for getting ahead despite his color or being raised in poverty by a single mother. He is a great role model, my lily white son idolizes him and wants to be a neurosurgeon too. If you live in the U. Which group had it more difficult and which is doing better? My guess is those more recent arrivals had it worse and are doing better, because of their perspective that they have much more opportunity here and yet they would experience the same racism as their counterparts.
Endless print about the negativity of black behavior on the net tells me everything I need to know about them as a culture. For example, no data is kept on how many people police kill. Also, how many people did white Americans kill during the Native American genocide, slavery, Jim Crow, drug wars, illegal and unconstitutional wars of aggression. All killings should be recorded and compared. Every violent state in history always legally justified its violence. Our entire society needs to wake up to systemic and institutional prejudices and privileges, most especially racism but also that of class.
It requires a change in the society itself, but first people have to be willing to take responsibility for the problems they are complicit in. In that case, American whites have embarassed themselves before the entire human race. Consider the systemic and institutional racism, along with a history of slavery and genocide. You embarass yourself by seeking to justify such horrific and inexcusable acts. But the distinction between the two is vague and subjective. What a jury determines, for example, is self-defense can at times defy all common sense. This is particularly the case when two separate races are involved.
The data shows that self-defense is disproportionately seen as more justifiable when a white kills a black than when the other way around. Of course, there is data on all American communities. Why do you ignorantly assert your beliefs when you could have simply looked up the stats? When controlled for confounding factors such as poverty, the disparities in many social problems tend to disappear.
But there is also the systemic and institutional racism that is endemic to all of American society. That plays a part as well, and there is no way to control for that confounding factor. But why are people like you always making excuses for your racism? Take those square quotes away and be honest about it. Endless print about the negativity of white commenters, cops, politicians, pundits, etc behavior on the net tells me everything I need to know about them as a culture.
Racial biases are literally a part of the entire social system of our society, including within institutions themselves. I could say it is endemic and structural. I could say it is wide-ranging and deep-rooted. I could say lots of things. What matters is the knowledge that those words represent. There has been decades of research and thousands of studies about this topic.
You can find this info in numerous peer-reviewed papers, dissertations, books, online articles, etc. Then you act like you won the debate. Until then, your comment is just so much noise. There is so much data out there and so many high quality books analyzing that data. I realize that the US education system and MSM have too often failed in getting this info to the public and helping them to understand it.
Even so, Americans have to take responsibility for themselves. No one is forcing them into a state of ignorance. For those who rather have eye-opening truth than comforting lies, here is a useful reading list many more could be added :. Who Are the Criminals? Zimring and Gordon Hawkins. Fording and Sanford F. Racial Wealth Divide by Barbara J. Brewer, Rebecca Adamson and Meizhu Lui. Massey and Robert J. Graves Jr. Doane and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva. I noticed one thing left out of the article. One criminal could commit many crimes. So, it might just be one percent of blacks committing most of the black crimes and it might only be a few percent of blacks committing all of the black crimes.
I do know this much. Knowing that, why does any intelligent person make sweeping generalizations about the black population and black communities? It is also true that whites have historically committed most of the state-sanctioned violence in America. That is also true for the entire world going back through the colonial period, with numerous genocides and mass enslavement, not to mention wars of aggression, invasions, occupations, covert military operations, support of authoritarian states, and various other forms of violent oppression.
On top of that, poor white communities are violent just like poor black communities. This allows whites to take advantage of the social capital and community resources of wealthier communities. Taken all together, it is obviously complex. It is the intersection of numerous forms of prejudice and oppression one side and the intersection of numerous forms of privilege and opportunity on the other side.
I have heard all the excuses for black crime-poverty and racism being the ones tossed around like a grenade most often. The simple fact is that blacks are more prone to violence because it is in their DNA and they are taught from birth that the White man is their mortal enemy. Whites make up by far the largest racial group below the poverty line. There IS indeed racism involved-it is called black privilege. I have heard all the excuses for white racism and black crime-poverty being the ones tossed around like a grenade most often.
The simple fact is that, when all violence is included, whites and white majority governments are more prone to violence, especially mass violence, because they rationalize it and they are taught from birth that the Black man is their mortal enemy. Blacks make up by far the largest racial group that is both below the poverty line and trapped in poor communities as a permanent underclass continuously since slavery, all because of proven systemic and institutional racism racial biases in employment and housing along with a legacy of white affirmative action, Jim Crow, sundown towns, etc.
There IS indeed racism involved-it is called white privilege. See how easy it is to make an argument. But there is a difference between your argument and mine, despite my copying almost the exact wording of your argument. Mine is based on facts and yours on ignorance. Mine is based on compassion and yours on bigotry.
That is an important difference. Thanks for your keen insight into this issue. Most Blacks who have anything of value to be robbed of have a heightened sense of awareness, and are therefore more proactive in defense of such crimes. In shoryt, they KNOW trouble when they see it. Criminals exploit the unassuming attitudes and misplaced trust of all-TOO-friendly Whites. The opportunities come in social interactions such as salespersons, service workers pizza delivery guy robbery , and such. Blacks having higher numbers of crimes committed is only true demographically. The overwhelming and vast amount of violent crimes are committed by Whites.
Its clearly not inherent to race since the outliers would outnumber the subjects. One only needs to look at the staggering crime statistics on the impoverished Indian reservations rife with substance abuse to see that it is a social issue. Another thing to keep in mind is that race is just a social construct. What distinguishes these populations are there economic segregation, social isolation, and political disenfranchisement. Race is used as a proxy for those things, but there is a difference.
There is no single black population and no single white population. A large part of the so-called black population have as much or more European genetics than African genetics. One in twenty blacks have no detectable African genetics whatsoever, which means labeling them African-Americans is a misnomer. As for whites, many Southern Europeans have North African genetics and have skin and hair as dark as many American blacks.
The same problems found in poor black communities are found in poor white communities. What is interesting about some of those poor white communities is that many of them have been in such conditions for generations or even centuries. Some of these poor white populations have been poor going all the way back to before they immigrated to America. These are what used to be called ethnics. There is a lot of Celtic and German ancestry in these populations. Many of them came from violent border regions, such as the Scots-Irish.
Every community and every group has to be considered separately on its own terms. It is specific whites who commit most of the white crime. The same goes for blacks. But the Justice Department, which is responsible for prosecuting the most serious crimes on reservations, files charges in only about half of Indian Country murder investigations and turns down nearly two-thirds of sexual assault cases, according to new federal data. Poverty is a root cause of crime, and without solving the poverty issue it may not be possible to solve the violent crime issues plaguing Indian reservations. Where there are high rates of poverty, so there are high rates of crime.
The official poverty rate for individual Indians in the United States on reservations is The reservation poverty rate for Indian families on reservations is 36 percent, compared to the national average of 9. Urban Indians have a poverty rate of 22 percent, which is better than reservation poverty rates. Some of the worst poverty rates are on reservations in the states of Washington, California, Wisconsin, Michigan, North Dakota, South Dakota, Arizona and New Mexico, where poverty rates often are higher than 60 percent.
Poverty is associated with low income, high unemployment, poor health, substandard housing, lack of market opportunities, and low educational achievement. Cycles of poverty are extremely difficult to break and tend to last over generations. Poverty is closely related to social distress.
Impoverished persons are more likely to be engaged in underground economy, use drugs and alcohol, which, in turn are highly associatied with violent crimes, domestic violence, and high crime rates. In , rapes in Indian country outpaced the total in Detroit, which is one of the most violent cities in the United States. Violent crime in Indian country increased during the to decade. Over the same decade, national violent crime rates fell, while Indian country violent crime rose by 29 percent. Murder rates in Indian country increased 41 percent between and Nevertheless, federal funding for police and courts serving Indian country declined during the same period.
While the decline in federal funding of public safety in Indian country may account for the rise in violent crimes, the funding decline does not account for the persistence of high rates of violent crime. More police, courts and jails will only partially address the fundamental issues of violence associated with poverty and social distress. There is no dispute regarding the staggering rates of victimizationin Indian country. Itis for this reason that the western district of North Carolina U.
You do a good job of explaining the problems of poverty. You list many of the issues and factors involved. Pollution and toxins are a major factor. They can lead to many health conditions that are costly and debilitating. They can also stunt psychological and cognitive development and cause behavioral issues. Lead poisoning is a great example of this, that has direct impact on both average IQ levels and violent behavior. Lead air pollution has been regulated in many nations, including the US, and violence rates have gone down worldwide, no matter the criminal policies of particular countries and cities.
A single lead paint chip consumed by a child can have massive lifelong effects. Research has found that pollution is far worse in poor communities and it is worse in poor minority communities than poor white communities. Also, poor people are forced to live where it is cheapest, which means where it is least desirable. Because of racial biases in housing and employment, poor minorities are forced to live in the worst conditions, especially in terms of pollution.
These problems of pollution and toxins could be taken care of with some basic regulations. But there is no political will because those most effected are those that have the least political power and influence. Every race whether you are Black White Hispanic Muslim etc. Numbers on who did what do not count it is just the continued grudge of our past history we can not let go. Pretty clear you hate the US and whites as you cherry pick histories atrocities to paint us as evil.
Well, yes, mankind is pretty evil, but really…only whites? But what does that have to do with the high black crime rate? Oh yeah, I see that justifies it. Somehow that is, although the logic is lost on me. Although I bet you feed this tripe to every young black you influence, insuring this problem persists. Look back at history and you will see many atrocities committed by almost every country, and society that has existed. Not just the white ones by the way. Black, brown, yellow, green. Every ethnic group has also been subjected to slavery by others. What I do care about though is the here and now and a growing problem.
And that problem is the high black crime rate. Instead of stabilizing it seems to be getting worse thanks Obama. These flash mobs, knockout games, riots are a threat to me and my family. I, or even worse…my sons, grandkids, could simply be walking in a mall, down the Miracle Mile in Chicago, on a sidewalk, take a wrong turn into a black neighborhood, or live near the wrong school, and only because they are white could be severely beaten, robbed, raped or murdered.
Have you checked the black on white rape vs white on black stats? Time for the black community to stop with the BS excuses and do something themselves to stop this epidemic. While blaming the whites for your self inflicted woes works with the self-loathing white libs, most whites have had enough. You must not have actually read any of my comments. I pointed to the inconvenient facts. I have no hatred for whites or any other race. I think races are meaningless categories in the first place and so hatred would be an odd response. I never claimed that non-white societies have never committed atrocities.
My point was simple. Consider genocides. Several of the largest genocides in world history were committed by white majority governments: Spanish genocide of Native Americans, US genocide of Native Americans, Belgium genocide of Congolese, German genocide of Jews, etc. Still, there have been some non-white majority governments and societies that have committed genocides, even if not on the same level of death count. But the facts speak for themselves.
I was arguing against those who would ignore or dismiss inconvient facts. Please refrain from making pointless and childish comments about Obama. As for black crime rates, they are way down since their high point in decades past. All crime rates are much lower. Because of economic problems, there has been a slight increase of black male crime, but also of white male crime. Those economic problems began under Bush, not Obama. BTW the worst riots in US history were committed by whites. Some of those are within living memory and they destroyed entire black communities e. Both in the past and the present, whites have proven themselves far more dangerous to blacks than the other way around.
That is just a fact. You should be worrying about the poverty that contributes to crime. If you take the wrong turn into a poor white community, your risk of being a victim of crime is just as high. Time for the white community, especially the racists, to stop with BS excuses and do something themselves to stop this epidemic of racism along with poverty and all the class issues that get conflated with race. While blaming the blacks for the woes society inflict on them works with white racists, most blacks and most younger whites have had enough. Non-whites have always been a large and influential part of American society.
Particular areas of the country are and always have been majority non-white. For example, many Hispanics descend from family lines that have been here in North America for longer than the US has existed, even going back to before the British colonies. The oldest buildings in the US were built by Hispanics.
Rice growing in the South came from Africa. Growing of corn, beans, and tomatoes came from the Native Americans, including ways of preparing these food items. African religion and music was incorporated into American Christianity. Cowboy culture, symbolic of American society, came from the Spanish Basque. Basque republicanisn was also an influence on John Adams. Native Americans inspired some of the founders in their thinking about the division of government.
This country would not be what it is today, if not for the contributions of non-whites. Whether one wants to call it hatred or bigotry, to not appreciate all of this is beyond just being uninformed and misinformed. A few percentage of non-whites commit all of the non-white crime. The vast majority of non-whites are law-abiding American citizens. What kind of sick person blames entire populations for the bad behaviors of a few, while ignoring all that those populations have done that is positive?
If being poor is the number one reason for crime then why are there more White people below the poverty, yet Blacks commit more crime? There are more poor White people in the United States than poor Black people. I want to focus on this point alone. Other information suggests that black entertainment was purposefully guided toward glorification of criminality, solely beginning with the music group NWA. Further links correlate this to the privatization of the prison industry. It should not be enough to take any of this information as fact. Do some research. None of these things are particularly hidden, but when put together, one is presented with an agenda.
The contribution by non-whites, and blacks African Americans to the greatness of America is noted. It may surprise you that I…a very white guy and conservative, would agree. I may also add that blacks have fought and died for this country since the American Revolution and every war since. Even while being subjected to either outright slavery, or even worse to me -the injustice of institutional racism following emancipation. Blacks are every bit as American, and part of the American story as European descent immigrants and others.
With that said, may I remind you that we have a criminal, and social problem with a small segment of the black community… namely young black males. That is what we are here to talk about. That is what this particular blog seems to be set up for. So that is what I will limit my comments to. Yes, I agree that whites are more likely to be serial killers.
We whites may have also initiated the largest riots in our history as you said. There are a lot of bad whites out there. Some scare me just looking at them. While you and many in black society may see some causative effect between the past and the present in reasoning away the statistically high violent crime rate, I and many others, including many in your own community, do not. That is simply hogwash. There is no such thing as institutional racism in the US nowadays.
Blacks are so part of the system now -including the entertainment, sports, and music industries, it is almost laughable to keep trotting out the systemic racism thing. So what then is the problem? Why such high rates of murder and rapes for such a small segment of our society? Perhaps they may even have wrecked the fabric of black society leading to fatherless children, gangsta worship, poor education and mothers dependent on government?
So I say again…the black community has to stop with the BS excuses, stop blaming others, stop being the racist as so many are, and deal with this themselves. For 50 years others have tried to help to little or no avail. If you wait for others to do anymore than they have already done, you will find yourselves increasingly marginalized as…not just whites, but all other ethnic groups including Caribbean and new immigrant Africans stay as far away from you as they can. When it comes to ones family, the PC goes out the window and safety takes precedent.
Conservatives are as diverse in their views as are liberals. Such labels are broad and mean different things to different people. I try to judge people as individuals, no matter their racial or political label. The data shows that it is even more narrow than that. It is primarily the poorest of poor young black males living in the poorest communities and neighborhoods.
In fact, it is only a small subset of that demographic that is committing most of the crime. This has been studied in great detail. Some of the research goes back for decades. There is no way an informed person could make the statement you just made. Your lack of knowledge just makes you a typical American. Even during slavery, there were house slaves and even some black slave owners. That is silly. Being willfully ignorant, sadly, is not laughable at all.
Just look at the recent Ferguson DOJ report or any other similar investigations. The same thing goes for the violent whites in poor communities. Since it is proven that housing and unemployment practices continue to be racially biased, we also need to ask what can be done for blacks trapped in poverty by such racist practices. That is what a moral person would ask. You have to make a decision if you want to be complicit with an unjust and morally depraved system or if you want to help make the world a better place.
At present, you are making the wrong decision. So I say again…the white community has to stop with the BS excuses, stop blaming others, stop being the racist as so many are, and deal with themselves. For 50 years others have tried to stop racial biases to little or no avail. If you wait for others to stop you from being racist, you will find yourselves increasingly marginalized as people like you have marginalized others…not just blacks, but all other ethnic groups including Canadian and new immigrant Europeans stay as far away from you as they can.
When it comes to ones family and community, the lies and empty rhetoric goes out the window and demands for justice take precedent. White crime is on the rise. That cone from the FBI census. If you gonna talk amount this.. We was here before every generation.
All this come from the Bible. If you know the Bible. This country will not tell you the truth. So why not give this country back to the rightful owners. You whites had mess this country up from day one. LOLs Benjamin…here I was debating with a white liberal all along. A well read one also as you keep reminding us. How cute. The high recidivism rate?
We will keep it at that. And yes, that does mean that I have a closed mind in those regards. Typical Archie Bunker conservative huh? We are all so shallow minded. Anyways, like I said, this particular blog is for discussing the high young black crime rate. When a blog opens up about Marxism, then we can talk Marxism. Well, I am white and generally liberal, but most only liberal in the predispositional sense.
I meet many well-informed and well-read people online. I judge each person individually, as well as I can, going by how they present themselves in their comments. You are making unfounded assertions. I was demonstrating that fact by showing the complete opposite assertions could be made with the same basic form of argument. Anyone can make unfounded assertions.
In fact, people do it all the time. I was raised by conservatives, my mother being more of a traditional social conservative and my father having a libertarian streak. I live in a rural Midwestern state, although I partly grew up in the Deep South. I briefly went to college before dropping out. By the way, it was my conservative parents who taught me a love of learning and a respect for knowledge. I never mentioned Marxism. I have, however, discussed the issues of race and crime in great detail. You are free to choose to interact with me on the level of knowledge or on the level of opinion.
The next 3 write of past racial injustices well before the great society…a period we all agree was unfair for blacks. Man I love this scholarly stuff. So easy and I feel so smart. Now take a look at the Wikipedia history of slavery. There were three types: those who were slaves through conquest, those who were slaves due to unpaid debts or those whose parents gave them as slaves to tribal chiefs.
Or did I miss something?